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Nod1 and Nod2 are mammalian proteins implicated in the intracellular detection of pathogen-associated molecular patterns. Recently, naturally occurring peptidoglycan (PG) fragments were identified as the microbial motifs sensed by Nod1 and Nod2. Whereas Nod2 detects GlcNAc-MurNAc dipeptide (GM-Di), Nod1 senses a unique diaminopimelate-containing(More)
The glmU gene product of Escherichia coli was recently identified as the N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphate uridyltransferase activity which catalyzes the formation of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine, an essential precursor for cell wall peptidoglycan and lipopolysaccharide biosyntheses (D. Mengin-Lecreulx and J. van Heijenoort, J. Bacteriol. 175:6150-6157, 1993).(More)
The Drosophila immune system discriminates between different classes of infectious microbes and responds with pathogen-specific defense reactions through selective activation of the Toll and the immune deficiency (Imd) signaling pathways. The Toll pathway mediates most defenses against Gram-positive bacteria and fungi, whereas the Imd pathway is required to(More)
The biosynthesis of bacterial cell wall peptidoglycan is a complex process involving many different steps taking place in the cytoplasm (synthesis of the nucleotide precursors) and on the inner and outer sides of the cytoplasmic membrane (assembly and polymerization of the disaccharide-peptide monomer unit, respectively). This review summarizes the current(More)
The cellular pool levels of most of the cytoplasmic precursors of peptidoglycan synthesis were determined for normally growing cells of Escherichia coli K-12. In particular, a convenient method for analyzing the uridine nucleotide precursor contents was developed by associating gel filtration and reverse-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography techniques.(More)
Physiological properties of the murG gene product of Escherichia coli were investigated. The inactivation of the murG gene rapidly inhibits peptidoglycan synthesis in exponentially growing cells. As a result, various alterations of cell shape are observed, and cell lysis finally occurs when the peptidoglycan content is 40% lower than that of normally(More)
The Drosophila peptidoglycan recognition protein SA (PGRP-SA) is critically involved in sensing bacterial infection and activating the Toll signaling pathway, which induces the expression of specific antimicrobial peptide genes. We have determined the crystal structure of PGRP-SA to 2.2-A resolution and analyzed its peptidoglycan (PG) recognition and(More)
Tracheal cytotoxin (TCT) was originally described as the minimal effector that was able to reproduce the cytotoxic response of Bordetella pertussis on ciliated epithelial cells. This molecule triggers pleiotropic effects such as immune stimulation or slow-wave sleep modulation. Further characterization identified TCT as a specific diaminopimelic acid(More)
The murI gene of Escherichia coli was recently identified on the basis of its ability to complement the only mutant requiring D-glutamic acid for growth that had been described to date: strain WM335 of E. coli B/r (P. Doublet, J. van Heijenoort, and D. Mengin-Lecreulx, J. Bacteriol. 174:5772-5779, 1992). We report experiments of insertional mutagenesis of(More)
N-acetylglucosamine 1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GlmU) is a cytoplasmic bifunctional enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of the nucleotide-activated UDP-GlcNAc, which is an essential precursor for the biosynthetic pathways of peptidoglycan and other components in bacteria. The crystal structure of a truncated form of GlmU has been solved at 2.25 A(More)