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Iron overload is associated with increased diabetes risk. We therefore investigated the effect of iron on adiponectin, an insulin-sensitizing adipokine that is decreased in diabetic patients. In humans, normal-range serum ferritin levels were inversely associated with adiponectin, independent of inflammation. Ferritin was increased and adiponectin was(More)
Cloning of the insulin receptor cDNA has earlier revealed the existence of two alternative forms of the receptor differing by the presence or absence of 12 amino acids near the C-terminus of the receptor alpha-subunit. This insert has been shown by others to be encoded by a discrete exon, and alternative splicing of this exon leads to tissue-specific(More)
Tibetans do not exhibit increased hemoglobin concentration at high altitude. We describe a high-frequency missense mutation in the EGLN1 gene, which encodes prolyl hydroxylase 2 (PHD2), that contributes to this adaptive response. We show that a variant in EGLN1, c.[12C>G; 380G>C], contributes functionally to the Tibetan high-altitude phenotype. PHD2(More)
The pathogenesis of diabetes associated with hemochromatosis is not known. We therefore examined glucose homeostasis and beta-cell function in mouse models of hemochromatosis. Mice with targeted deletion of the hemochromatosis gene (Hfe(-/-)) on the 129/Sv genetic background exhibited a 72% increase in iron content in the islets of Langerhans compared with(More)
The metabolic syndrome, a complex set of phenotypes typically associated with obesity and diabetes, is an increasing threat to global public health. Fundamentally, the metabolic syndrome is caused by a failure to properly sense and respond to cellular metabolic cues. We studied the role of the cellular metabolic sensor PAS kinase (PASK) in the pathogenesis(More)
Iron overload is a risk factor for diabetes. The link between iron and diabetes was first recognized in pathologic conditions-hereditary hemochromatosis and thalassemia-but high levels of dietary iron also impart diabetes risk. Iron plays a direct and causal role in diabetes pathogenesis mediated both by β cell failure and insulin resistance. Iron also(More)
Glucose is an important regulator of cell growth and metabolism. Thus, it is likely that some of the adverse effects of hyperglycemia are reflections of normal regulation by abnormal concentrations of glucose. How the cell senses glucose, however, is still incompletely understood. Evidence has been presented that the hexosamine biosynthesis pathway serves(More)
We examined the activity of the rate-limiting enzyme for hexosamine biosynthesis, glutamine:fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase (GFA) in human skeletal muscle cultures (HSMC), from 17 nondiabetic control and 13 subjects with non-insulin-dependent diabetes. GFA activity was assayed from HSMC treated with low (5 mM) or high (20 mM) glucose and low (22 pM)(More)
Free fatty acids (FFAs) are proposed to play a pathogenic role in both peripheral and hepatic insulin resistance. We have examined the effect of saturated FFA on insulin signalling (100 nM) in two hepatocyte cell lines. Fao hepatoma cells were treated with physiological concentrations of sodium palmitate (0.25 mM) (16:0) for 0.25-48 h. Palmitate decreased(More)
The hexosamine biosynthesis pathway (HBP) serves as a nutrient sensor and has been implicated in the development of type 2 diabetes. We previously demonstrated that fatty acid oxidation was enhanced in transgenic mouse adipocytes, wherein the rate-limiting enzyme of the HBP, glutamine:fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase (GFA), was overexpressed. To(More)