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BACKGROUND Traumatic brain injury (TBI) with its associated morbidity is a major area of unmet medical need that lacks effective therapies. TBI initiates a neuroinflammatory cascade characterized by activation of astrocytes and microglia, and increased production of immune mediators including proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. This inflammatory(More)
BACKGROUND Overproduction of proinflammatory cytokines from activated microglia has been implicated as an important contributor to pathophysiology progression in both acute and chronic neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, it is critical to elucidate intracellular signaling pathways that are significant contributors to cytokine overproduction in microglia(More)
PURPOSE Early-life seizures increase vulnerability to subsequent neurologic insult. We tested the hypothesis that early-life seizures increase susceptibility to later neurologic injury by causing chronic glial activation. To determine the mechanisms by which glial activation may modulate neurologic injury, we examined both acute changes in proinflammatory(More)
Inflammation is the body's defense mechanism against threats such as bacterial infection, undesirable substances, injury, or illness. The process is complex and involves a variety of specialized cells that mobilize to neutralize and dispose of the injurious material so that the body can heal. In the brain, a similar inflammation process occurs when glia,(More)
A corollary of the neuroinflammation hypothesis is that selective suppression of neurotoxic products produced by excessive glial activation will result in neuroprotection. We report here that daily oral administration to mice of the brain-penetrant compound 4,6-diphenyl-3-(4-(pyrimidin-2-yl)piperazin-1-yl)pyridazine (MW01-5-188WH), a selective inhibitor of(More)
S-100B is an astrocyte-derived protein that is increased in focal areas of the brain most severely affected by neuropathological changes in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Cell-based and clinical studies have implicated S-100B in progression of a pathologic, glial-mediated pro-inflammatory state in the CNS. However, the relationship between S-100B levels and(More)
Early-life seizures result in increased susceptibility to seizures and greater neurologic injury with a second insult in adulthood. The mechanisms which link seizures in early-life to increased susceptibility to neurologic injury following a 'second hit' are not known. We examined the contribution of microglial activation and increased proinflammatory(More)
BACKGROUND An accumulating body of evidence is consistent with the hypothesis that excessive or prolonged increases in proinflammatory cytokine production by activated glia is a contributor to the progression of pathophysiology that is causally linked to synaptic dysfunction and hippocampal behavior deficits in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's(More)
Using a human amyloid beta (Abeta) intracerebroventricular infusion mouse model of Alzheimer's disease-related injury, we previously demonstrated that systemic administration of a glial activation inhibitor could suppress neuroinflammation, prevent synaptic damage, and attenuate hippocampal-dependent behavioral deficits. We report that Abeta-induced(More)
Overproduction of proinflammatory cytokines in the CNS has been implicated as a key contributor to pathophysiology progression in Alzheimer's disease (AD), and extensive studies with animal models have shown that selective suppression of excessive glial proinflammatory cytokines can improve neurologic outcomes. The prior art, therefore, raises the logical(More)