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Recombinant human parathyroid hormone (hPTH) was expressed in Escherichia coli harboring a plasmid containing a synthetic human parathyroid hormone gene under the control of the E. coli lac promoter. Three major forms of the hormone were isolated by acid extraction and purified to homogeneity by high performance liquid chromatography. By amino acid analysis(More)
Enhanced accumulation of human proinsulin synthesized in Escherichia coli has been achieved by inserting a short leader of homooligopeptide at the amino end of proinsulin. Out of 20 amino acid oligomers studied, (Ala)6, (Asn)6, (Cys)7, (Gln)7, (His)6, (Ser)6, and (Thr)6 leaders were the most effective, with the yield of proinsulin ranging between 6% and 26%(More)
Synthetic genes encoding the 190 amino acid Trichoderma reesei xylanase II (TrX) and the closely related Trichoderma viride xylanases have been synthesized in a two-step procedure. Initially, a partial gene encoding amino acids 92-190 was constructed in fusion with the N-terminal half of the Bacillus circulans xylanase (BcX). The remaining BcX gene sequence(More)
The conversion of d-xylose to ethanol by the yeast Pachysolen tannophilus is relatively inefficient in batch culture. The inefficiency has been attributed in part to concurrent utilization of ethanol in the presence of appreciable concentrations of d-xylose and to the formation of xylitol and other by-products. To increase the concentration of ethanol(More)
An efficient expression system for a low-molecular mass xylanase in Escherichia coli has been developed. A gene encoding the mature Bacillus circulans (Bc) xylanase was designed to imitate the frequency of degenerate codons used in E. coli. Appropriate degenerate codons were used to create multiple unique restriction sites for future mutagenesis studies.(More)
Recombinant analogues of human parathyroid hormone [hPTH-(1-84)] were expressed in Escherichia coli harboring plasmids containing synthetic genes under the control of the lac promoter. The level of expression of the gene encoding the truncated analogue, hPTH-(3-84), was greater than that of the gene encoding full-length hPTH-(1-84) but less than that of the(More)
The "duplex crossover linker" technique was simplified and used to delete the beta-galactosidase (beta-Gal)-coding sequence upstream from the multiple restriction sites in pUC plasmids. A single-stranded crossover linker, with a homology-searching sequence as short as 5 bases, was initially ligated to a linearized plasmid. Inside Escherichia coli, the(More)
Induced mutants, selected for their defective growth on d-xylose while retaining the ability to grow normally on d-glucose, were studied in Pachysolen tannophilus, a yeast capable of converting d-xylose to ethanol. Fourteen of the mutations were found to occur at nine distinct loci, and data indicated that many more loci remain to be detected. Most of the(More)
Expression of the human parathyroid hormone (PTH) gene in E. coli yielded intact PTH and PTH-(8-84). To determine if PTH-(8-84) is the result of a competing translation initiated from methionine codon-8 or degradation of the intact PTH, twelve new gene constructs with or without an internal ribosome-binding site (iRBS) in the PTH-(1-5) region were prepared(More)
The tolerance of mismatched nucleotides between the cohesive ends of insert and target DNAs in gene cloning has been investigated. An oligonucleotide duplex with a cohesive end GGCC-5' or variation was ligated to the 5'-CCGG end of a linearized plasmid. The ligation mixture was used in the transformation of E. coli. A single-base mismatch, such as(More)