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We used the hot plate test and the formalin test to evaluate the antinociception of choline after i.c.v. or i.v. administration. The analgesic mechanism of choline was also studied. The response latency of mice was significantly prolonged in the hot plate test after choline (90-120 mug/animals) i.c.v. administration in a dose-dependent manner. Pretreatment(More)
The p63 gene regulates thymic epithelial cell (TEC) proliferation, whereas FoxN1 regulates their differentiation. However, their collaborative role in the regulation of TEC homeostasis during thymic aging is largely unknown. In murine models, the proportion of TAp63(+), but not ΔNp63(+), TECs was increased with age, which was associated with an age-related(More)
FoxN1 is cell-autonomously expressed in skin and thymic epithelial cells (TECs), essential for their development. Inborn mutation of FoxN1 results in hair follicle and TEC development failure, whereas insufficient postnatal FoxN1 expression induces thymic atrophy, resulting in declined T lymphopoiesis. Although upregulating FoxN1 expression in the aged(More)
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