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Angiotensin II (Ang II) stimulates expression of tyrosine hydroxylase and norepinephrine transporter genes in brain neurons; however, the signal-transduction mechanism is not clearly defined. This study was conducted to determine the involvement of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase signaling pathway in Ang II stimulation of these genes. MAP kinase(More)
The objective of this review is to examine the role of neuronal angiotensin II (Ang II) receptors in vitro. Two types of G protein-coupled Ang II receptors have been identified in cardiovascularly relevant areas of the brain: the AT1 and the AT2. We have utilized neurons in culture to study the signaling mechanisms of AT1 and AT2 receptors. Neuronal AT1(More)
Angiotensin II (Ang II) exerts chronic stimulatory actions on tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DbetaH), and the norepinephrine transporter (NET), in part, by influencing the transcription of their genes. These neuromodulatory actions of Ang II involve Ras-Raf-MAP kinase signal transduction pathways (Lu, D., H. Yang, and M.K. Raizada.(More)
Angiotensin II (Ang II) interaction with the neuronal AT1 receptor results in a chronic stimulation of neuromodulation that involves the expression of norepinephrine transporter (NET) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). In view of this unique property and the presence of putative nuclear localization signal (NLS) consensus sequence in the AT1 receptor, this(More)
Aside from its well-known and numerous actions at peripheral tissues, the octapeptide angiotensin II (ANG II) elicits specific receptor-mediated effects within the central nervous system. In this review we focus on the receptor-mediated actions of ANG II on neurons. The distribution of ANG II receptors in the brain and physiological, electrophysiological,(More)
Angiotensin II (Ang II), via the activation of the AT1 and AT2 receptors regulates electrophysiological responses of catecholaminergic neurons. This study was designed to determine if functional interactions between AT1 and AT2 receptors exist in a single neuron. Ang II caused two unique electrophysiological responses characteristic of receptor crosstalk.(More)
Liver transplantation represents a cornerstone in the management of early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Expansion beyond the Milan criteria for liver transplantation (1 lesion <or= 5 cm, or 2 to 3 lesions each <or= 3 cm) remains controversial. This review covers several key areas: (1) Recent developments and published data on expanded criteria for(More)
The ability to selectively block the entry of leukocytes into the central nervous system (CNS) without compromising the immune system is an attractive therapeutic approach for treating multiple sclerosis (MS). Using endothelial CD146-deficienct mice as a MS model, we found that endothelial CD146 plays an active role in the CNS-directed extravasation of(More)
Regional cerebral glucose influx was measured using quantitative autoradiography after the intravenous infusion of [2-14C]glucose for a period of 10 or 20 s. Glucose influx varied considerably among structures over an almost threefold range. When compared with rates of regional glucose utilization, a significant correlation by region was found between(More)
Increased brain angiotensin II (AII) type 1 receptor (AT1R) expression has been implicated in the hyperactive brain angiotensin system and the development and maintenance of hypertension in the genetically spontaneously hypertensive (SH) rat. Neuronal cells in primary culture from the cardioregulatory-relevant brain areas (hypothalamus/brainstem) mimic(More)