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White matter (WM) lesions are the classic pathological hallmarks of multiple sclerosis (MS). However, MRI-based WM lesion load shows relatively poor correlation with functional outcome, resulting in the "clinico-radiological paradox" of MS. Unlike lesion based measures, volumetric MRI assessment of brain atrophy shows a strong correlation with functional(More)
We review behavioral- and neuroeconomic research that identifies temporal discounting as an important component in the development and maintenance of drug addiction. First, we review behavioral economic research that explains and documents the contribution of temporal discounting to addiction. This is followed with recent insights from neuroeconomics that(More)
The second-largest cause of X-linked mental retardation is a deficiency in creatine transporter (CRT; encoded by SLC6A8), which leads to speech and language disorders with severe cognitive impairment. This syndrome, caused by the absence of creatine in the brain, is currently untreatable because CRT is required for creatine entry into brain cells. Here, we(More)
Perinatal infection aggravates neonatal hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain injury and may interfere with therapeutic hypothermia. While the NF-κB signaling pathway has been implicated in microglia activation in infection-sensitized HI, the current therapeutic strategies rely on systemic intervention, which could impair neonatal immunity and increase the risk of(More)
Childhood lead exposure is associated with adverse cognitive, neurobehavioral and motor outcomes, suggesting altered brain structure and function. The purpose of this work was to assess the long-term impact of childhood lead exposure on white matter integrity in young adults. We hypothesized that childhood lead exposure would alter adult white matter(More)
Megestrol acetate (MA) (Bristol-Myers Squibb Co., Princeton, NJ) increases weight gain in AIDS and cancer patients and in age-related cachexia; however, the weight gain is predominately fat. We determined if adding resistance exercise and/or testosterone (T) replacement to MA administration would result in a more favorable body composition change than MA(More)
Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a powerful method to visualize white matter, but its use in patients with acute stroke remains limited because of the lack of corresponding histologic information. In this study, we addressed this issue using a hypoxia-ischemia (HI)-induced thrombotic model of stroke in adult mice. At 6, 15, and 24  hours after injury,(More)
Disruption of the integrity of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is an important mechanism of cerebrovascular diseases, including neonatal cerebral hypoxia-ischemia (HI). Although both tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) can produce BBB damage, their relationship in neonatal cerebral HI is unclear. Here we use a rodent(More)
Intrauterine infection (chorioamnionitis) aggravates neonatal hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain injury, but the mechanisms linking systemic inflammation to the CNS damage remain uncertain. Here we report evidence for brain influx of T-helper 17 (TH17)-like lymphocytes to coordinate neuroinflammatory responses in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-sensitized HI injury in(More)
In previous work at 4.7 T, the individual components of biexponential (7) Li transverse (T2 ) spin relaxation in rat brain in vivo were tentatively identified with intra- and extracellular Li. The goal in this work was to estimate Li's compartmental distribution as a function of total Li concentration in brain from the biexponential decays. Here a(More)