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White matter (WM) lesions are the classic pathological hallmarks of multiple sclerosis (MS). However, MRI-based WM lesion load shows relatively poor correlation with functional outcome, resulting in the "clinico-radiological paradox" of MS. Unlike lesion based measures, volumetric MRI assessment of brain atrophy shows a strong correlation with functional(More)
We review behavioral- and neuroeconomic research that identifies temporal discounting as an important component in the development and maintenance of drug addiction. First, we review behavioral economic research that explains and documents the contribution of temporal discounting to addiction. This is followed with recent insights from neuroeconomics that(More)
Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a powerful method to visualize white matter, but its use in patients with acute stroke remains limited because of the lack of corresponding histologic information. In this study, we addressed this issue using a hypoxia-ischemia (HI)-induced thrombotic model of stroke in adult mice. At 6, 15, and 24  hours after injury,(More)
We examined the size of the four muscles of the quadriceps femoris in young and old men and women to assess whether the vastus lateralis is an appropriate surrogate for the quadriceps femoris in human studies of aging skeletal muscle. Ten young (24 +/- 2 yr) and ten old (79 +/- 7 yr) sedentary individuals underwent magnetic resonance imaging of the(More)
Childhood lead exposure is associated with adverse cognitive, neurobehavioral and motor outcomes, suggesting altered brain structure and function. The purpose of this work was to assess the long-term impact of childhood lead exposure on white matter integrity in young adults. We hypothesized that childhood lead exposure would alter adult white matter(More)
Disruption of the integrity of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is an important mechanism of cerebrovascular diseases, including neonatal cerebral hypoxia-ischemia (HI). Although both tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) can produce BBB damage, their relationship in neonatal cerebral HI is unclear. Here we use a rodent(More)
Intrauterine infection (chorioamnionitis) aggravates neonatal hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain injury, but the mechanisms linking systemic inflammation to the CNS damage remain uncertain. Here we report evidence for brain influx of T-helper 17 (TH17)-like lymphocytes to coordinate neuroinflammatory responses in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-sensitized HI injury in(More)
AIM The efficacy of a mechanical, gravity-independent resistance exercise (RE) system to induce strength gains and muscle hypertrophy was validated. Designed for space crew in orbit, this technique offers resistance during coupled concentric and eccentric actions by utilizing the inertia of a rotating flywheel(s), set in motion by the trainee. METHODS Ten(More)
In this study, single voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging ((1)H-MRS) and volumetric analysis of hippocampal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images were used to determine if any differences in hippocampal biochemistry or volume were present between former prisoners of war (POWs) with and without posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and(More)
Edaravone, a potent antioxidant, may improve thrombolytic therapy because it benefits ischemic stroke patients on its own and mitigates adverse effects of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) in preclinical models. However, whether the combined tPA-edaravone therapy is more effective in reducing infarct size than singular treatment is uncertain. Here we(More)