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We review behavioral- and neuroeconomic research that identifies temporal discounting as an important component in the development and maintenance of drug addiction. First, we review behavioral economic research that explains and documents the contribution of temporal discounting to addiction. This is followed with recent insights from neuroeconomics that(More)
AIM The efficacy of a mechanical, gravity-independent resistance exercise (RE) system to induce strength gains and muscle hypertrophy was validated. Designed for space crew in orbit, this technique offers resistance during coupled concentric and eccentric actions by utilizing the inertia of a rotating flywheel(s), set in motion by the trainee. METHODS Ten(More)
The second-largest cause of X-linked mental retardation is a deficiency in creatine transporter (CRT; encoded by SLC6A8), which leads to speech and language disorders with severe cognitive impairment. This syndrome, caused by the absence of creatine in the brain, is currently untreatable because CRT is required for creatine entry into brain cells. Here, we(More)
White matter (WM) lesions are the classic pathological hallmarks of multiple sclerosis (MS). However, MRI-based WM lesion load shows relatively poor correlation with functional outcome, resulting in the "clinico-radiological paradox" of MS. Unlike lesion based measures, volumetric MRI assessment of brain atrophy shows a strong correlation with functional(More)
This review describes various quantitative magnetic resonance imaging techniques that can be used to objectively analyze the composition (T2 relaxation time mapping, Dixon imaging, and diffusion-weighted imaging), architecture (diffusion tensor imaging), mechanical properties (magnetic resonance elastography), and function (magnetic resonance spectroscopy)(More)
Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a powerful method to visualize white matter, but its use in patients with acute stroke remains limited because of the lack of corresponding histologic information. In this study, we addressed this issue using a hypoxia-ischemia (HI)-induced thrombotic model of stroke in adult mice. At 6, 15, and 24  hours after injury,(More)
Ten normal subjects were scanned identically at three separate sites (Little Rock, Houston, and New Orleans) to evaluate the reproducibility of brain metabolite ratios in single-voxel (1)H point-resolved spectroscopy sequence (PRESS) magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy in vivo. All scans were processed by a single individual at a single site. Coefficients(More)
Childhood lead exposure is associated with adverse cognitive, neurobehavioral and motor outcomes, suggesting altered brain structure and function. The purpose of this work was to assess the long-term impact of childhood lead exposure on white matter integrity in young adults. We hypothesized that childhood lead exposure would alter adult white matter(More)
Intrauterine infection (chorioamnionitis) aggravates neonatal hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain injury, but the mechanisms linking systemic inflammation to the CNS damage remain uncertain. Here we report evidence for brain influx of T-helper 17 (TH17)-like lymphocytes to coordinate neuroinflammatory responses in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-sensitized HI injury in(More)