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Do countries with lower policy-induced barriers to international trade grow faster, once other relevant country characteristics are controlled for? There exists a large empirical literature providing an affirmative answer to this question. We argue that methodological problems with the empirical strategies employed in this literature leave the results open(More)
We explore the relationship between exposure to trade (as measured by openness) and child labor in a cross country setting. Our methodology accounts for the fact that trade flows are endogenous to child labor (and labor standards more generally) by examining the relationship between child labor and variation in trade based on geography. We find that(More)
The Bagwell and Staiger (1990) theory of cooperative trade agreements predicts new tariffs (i) increase with imports, (ii) increase with the inverse of the sum of the import demand and export supply elasticities, and (iii) decrease with the variance of imports. We find US import policy during 1997-2006 to be consistent with this theory. A one standard(More)
The cloned bovine prothrombin gene has been characterized by partial DNA sequence analysis, including the 5' and 3' flanking sequences and all the intron-exon junctions. The gene is approximately 15.4 x 10(3) base-pairs in length and comprises 14 exons interrupted by 13 introns. The exons coding for the prepro-leader peptide and the gamma-carboxyglutamic(More)
The gene for human prothrombin, or factor II (F2) has been assigned to 11p11-q12 by the combined use of a panel of somatic cell hybrid DNAs and in situ hybridization, using both cDNA and genomic probes. In addition, the cDNA probe for F2 recognizes a homologous sequence which has been tentatively mapped to the X chromosome. Similar approaches have been used(More)
This paper considers the impact of liberalized trade policy on child labor in a developing country. While trade liberalization entails an increase in the relative price of the exported product, trade theory provides ambiguous predictions on how this price change affects the incidence of child labor. In this paper, we exploit regional and intertemporal(More)
The full length sequence for the human pathogen coxsackievirus B6 (CVB6, Schmitt strain) has been determined. We used long RT-PCR to generate full length DNA amplicon of CVB6, and then directly sequenced the amplicons. One-step cloning of the full length amplicon enabled us to obtain an infectious clone of CVB6. RNA generated from CVB6 amplicon DNA or CVB6(More)
This paper introduces a new data set and establishes a set of basic facts and patterns regarding the ‘trade’ that countries fight about under WTO dispute settlement. It characterizes the scope of products, as well as the levels of and changes to the trade values, market shares, volumes, and prices for those goods that eventually become subject to WTO(More)
Why Did the Tariff-Growth Correlation Change After 1950? This paper uses a new database to establish a key finding: high tariffs were associated with fast growth before World War II, while they have been associated with slow growth thereafter. The paper offers explanations for the sign switch by controlling for novel measures of the changing world economic(More)