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We propose a two-stage hierarchical arti®cial neural network for the segmentation of color images based on the Kohonen self-organizing map (SOM). The ®rst stage of the network employs a ®xed-size two-dimensional feature map that captures the dominant colors of an image in an unsupervised mode. The second stage combines a variable-sized one-dimensional(More)
Evaluation function is an important item to measure the quality of images in auto-focusing systems. This paper introduces four categories of evaluation functions which are respectively based on gradient, correlation, statistics and transform. These functions formally differ from each other and their performances are not consistent when dealing with(More)
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