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We present a practical implementation of a variation of the Turing Test for realistic computer graphics. The test determines whether virtual representations of objects appear as real as genuine objects. Two experiments were conducted wherein a real object and a similar virtual object is presented to test subjects under specific restrictions. A criterion for(More)
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The α-effect-enhanced reactivity of nucleophiles with a lone-pair adjacent to the attacking center-was recently demonstrated for gas-phase S(N)2 reactions of HOO(-), supporting an intrinsic component of the α-effect. In the present work we explore the gas-phase reactivity of microsolvated nucleophiles in order to investigate in detail how the α-effect is(More)
Gas-phase vibrational spectra of 2-aminoethanol and 3-aminopropanol were recorded up to the third OH-stretching overtone using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, cavity ringdown spectroscopy, and intracavity laser photoacoustic spectroscopy. The experimental investigation was supplemented by local mode calculations, and the intramolecular interactions(More)
FTIR smog chamber techniques were used to measure k(Cl + C(2)F(5)CH(2)OCH(3)) = (2.52 ± 0.37) × 10(-11) and k(OH + C(2)F(5)CH(2)OCH(3)) = (5.78 ± 1.02) × 10(-13) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) in 700 Torr of air diluent at 296 ± 1 K. The atmospheric lifetime of C(2)F(5)CH(2)OCH(3) is estimated to be 20 days. Reaction of chlorine atoms with C(2)F(5)CH(2)OCH(3)(More)
The gas phase hydrogen abstraction reaction between OH and CY(2)XH, where X = H, F, OH, or NH(2) and Y = H, CH(3) or F, in the absence and presence of a single water molecule is investigated using both density function theory, B3LYP, and explicitly correlated coupled cluster theory, CCSD(T)-F12. We find that a single water molecule could have a catalytic(More)
The enhanced reactivity of α-nucleophiles, which contain an electron lone pair adjacent to the reactive site, has been demonstrated in solution and in the gas phase and, recently, for the gas-phase S(N)2 reactions of the microsolvated HOO(-)(H2O) ion with methyl chloride. In the present work, we continue to explore the significance of microsolvation on the(More)
The α-effect, an enhanced reactivity of nucleophiles with a lone-pair adjacent to the reaction center, has been studied in solution for several decades. The gas-phase α-effect has recently been documented in studies of SN2 reactions as well as in competing reactions for both bare and microhydrated anions. In the present work we extend our studies of the(More)
The first study of pseudo-bimolecular cycloaddition reaction dynamics in the gas phase is presented. We used femtosecond time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (TRPES) to study the [2+2] photocycloaddition in the model system pseudo-gem-divinyl[2.2]paracyclophane. From X-ray crystal diffraction measurements we found that the ground-state molecule can(More)
height. Assuming a linear relationship between thickness and absorption, as well as assuming a direct relationship between absorption and emission, the fluorescence signal, measured by NSOM, is expected to increase by the same percentage. The increase in fluorescence between the tallest feature and the background signal of 13 kcps is 13 kcps. Although this(More)
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