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The carcinoid syndrome is a result of the release of multiple carcinoid tumor factors, particularly serotonin, kinins, and histamine. These factors cause flushing, hemodynamic instability, right-sided heart disease, bronchospasm, and gastrointestinal symptoms. A through preoperative assessment concentrating on these areas is necessary. The use of invasive(More)
Meperidine (Demerol) has local anesthetic properties separate from its opioid receptor agonist effect. Unlike morphine, meperidine is structurally similar to local anesthetics. Therefore, it is not surprising that it possesses some characteristics of local anesthetics. If meperidine acts like a local anesthetic, binding to the same receptor sites and(More)
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