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To obtain an insight into the evolutionary origin of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I polymorphism, a cDNA library was prepared from a heterozygous chimpanzee cell line expressing MHC class I molecules crossreacting with allele-specific HLA-A11 antibodies. The library was screened with human class I locus-specific DNA probes, and clones(More)
Lake Malawi in East Africa harbours 500-1,000 endemic species of cichlid fishes, all presumably derived by adaptive radiation from a single founding population within the past two million years. The species of this 'flock' differ strikingly in their ecology and behaviour, moderately in their external morphology and very little in their molecular(More)
BACKGROUND MicroRNAs are non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression including differentiation and development by either inhibiting translation or inducing target degradation. The aim of this study is to determine the microRNA expression signature during human pancreatic development and to identify potential microRNA gene targets calculating correlations(More)
Nonspecific inflammation in the transplant microenvironment results in β-cell dysfunction and death influencing negatively graft outcome. MicroRNA (miRNA) expression and gene target regulation in transplanted islets are not yet well characterized. We evaluated the impact of inflammation on miRNA expression in transplanted rat islets. Islets exposed in vitro(More)
The resounding success of a new immunosuppressive regimen known as the Edmonton protocol demonstrates that islet cell transplantation is becoming a therapeutic reality for diabetes. However, under the Edmonton protocol, a single donor does not provide enough islets to attain the insulin independence of a transplant recipient. This limitation is mainly(More)
Transplantation of islets is becoming an established method for treating type 1 diabetes. However, viability of islets is greatly affected by necrosis/apoptosis induced by oxidative stress and other insults during isolation and subsequent in vitro culture. Expression of cytoprotective proteins, such as heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), reduces the deleterious(More)
Cichlid fishes of the East African Rift Valley lakes constitute an important model of adaptive radiation. Explosive speciation in the Great Lakes, in some cases as recently as 12 400 years ago, generated large species flocks that have been the focus of evolutionary studies for some time. The studies have, however, been hampered by the paucity of biochemical(More)
microRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in pancreatic development and adult β-cell physiology. Our hypothesis is based on the assumption that each islet cell type has a specific pattern of miRNA expression. We sought to determine the profile of miRNA expression in α-and β-cells, the main components of pancreatic islets, because this analysis may lead to a(More)
A high degree of polymorphism and high nucleotide diversity mark the functional genes of the major histocompatibility complex (Mbc). Alleles at the different Mbc loci can be classified into distinct lineages that are shared between species and, therefore, are presumed to have been founded before speciation. We have sequenced the most polymorphic part of 25(More)