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The brain is assumed to be hypoactive during cardiac arrest. However, the neurophysiological state of the brain immediately following cardiac arrest has not been systematically investigated. In this study, we performed continuous electroencephalography in rats undergoing experimental cardiac arrest and analyzed changes in power density, coherence, directed(More)
Sleep and wakefulness are instinctive behaviours that are present across the animal species. Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep is a unique biological phenomenon expressed during sleep. It evolved about 300 million years ago and is noticed in the more evolved animal species. Although it has been objectively identified in its present characteristic form about(More)
Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep disturbance is associated with several psycho-behavioral disorders, hence, it is important to understand its neural mechanism of regulation. Although it was known that the noradrenergic (NA-ergic) neurons from locus coeruleus (LC) project to the pedunculopontine tegmentum (PPT), the role of noradrenaline (NA) alone and in(More)
REM-OFF and REM-ON neurons in the brainstem are reported to regulate REM sleep, however, the detailed mechanism of generation of REM sleep is unknown. The former are continuously active except during REM sleep and an inhibitory neurotransmitter, GABA, has been implicated in mediating the inhibition for the generation of REM sleep. The REM-ON neurons, on the(More)
Based on the results of independent studies the involvement of norepinephrine in REM sleep regulation was known. Isolated studies showed that the effect could be mediated through either one or more subtypes of adrenoceptors. Earlier we have reported that REM-OFF neurons continue firing during REM sleep deprivation and mild but continuous stimulation of(More)
The Government of India initiated a cash incentive scheme--Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY)--to promote institutional deliveries with an aim to reduce maternal mortality ratio (MMR). An observational study was conducted in a tertiary-care hospital of Madhya Pradesh, India, before and after implementation of JSY, with a sample of women presenting for(More)
The noradrenergic (NA-ergic) rapid eye movement (REM)-OFF neurons in locus coeruleus (LC) and cholinergic REM-ON neurons in laterodorsal/pedunculopontine tegmentum show a reciprocal firing pattern. The REM-ON neurons fire during REM sleep whereas REM-OFF neurons stop firing during REM sleep. The cessation of firing of REM-OFF neurons is a pre-requisite for(More)
An integrated methodology using quality function deployment (QFD) and analytic network process (ANP) is proposed to determine and prioritize the engineering requirements of a cast part, based on the customer needs, for selecting and evaluating an appropriate rapid prototyping (RP) based route for tooling fabrication. The QFD incorporates a planning matrix(More)
BACKGROUND There is limited understanding of cortical neurochemistry and cortical connectivity during ketamine anaesthesia. We conducted a systematic study to investigate the effects of ketamine on cortical acetylcholine (ACh) and electroencephalographic coherence. METHODS Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=11) were implanted with electrodes to record(More)