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Diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DT-MRI) permits the noninvasive assessment of tissue microstructure and, with fibre-tracking algorithms, allows for the 3-D trajectories of white matter fasciculi to be reconstructed noninvasively. Probabilistic algorithms allow one to assign a "confidence" to a given reconstructed pathway--but often rely on a(More)
Diffusion weighted (DW) MRI facilitates non-invasive quantification of tissue microstructure and, in combination with appropriate signal processing, three-dimensional estimates of fibrous orientation. In recent years, attention has shifted from the diffusion tensor model, which assumes a unimodal Gaussian diffusion displacement profile to recover fibre(More)
With the increased use of glyphosate-based herbicides (marketed under several names, including Roundup and Vision), there has been a concomitant increased concern about the unintended impacts that particular formulations containing the popular surfactant polyethoxylated tallowamine (POEA) might have on amphibians. Published studies have examined a(More)
Pesticides are commonly used for health and economic benefits worldwide, but increased use has led to increased contamination of aquatic habitats. To understand potential impacts on nontarget organisms in these habitats, toxicologists generally use short-term (4-d) toxicity tests on model organisms. For most pesticides, few amphibian tests have been(More)
C. Pierpaoli1, S. Marenco1, G. Rohde1, D. K. Jones1, A. S. Barnett1 National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States Synopsis: We analyze the contributions of cardiac-pulsation to the variability in estimates of diffusion tensor quantities in the human brain. We identify two contributions to variability arising from cardiac pulsation, namely(More)
The widespread use of pesticides raises the possibility that non-target organisms might also be affected. To assess this, the traditional approach has been to conduct short-term laboratory experiments spanning a range of lethal concentrations and some longer-duration experiments at sublethal concentrations. While this approach has been very useful, less(More)
D. K. Jones, C. Pierpaoli Institute of Psychiatry, P089, Centre for Neuroimaging Sciences, London, United Kingdom, STBB, LIMB, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, United States Background: There are several sources of perturbation to diffusion weighted (DW) imaging including Gaussian RF noise, rigid body patient motion and eddy current distortions.(More)
Social animals are extraordinarily diverse and ecologically abundant. In understanding the success of complex animal societies, task differentiation has been identified as a central mechanism underlying the emergence and performance of adaptive collective behaviors. In this study, we explore how individual differences in behavior and body size determine(More)
One aim of this work is to investigate the feasibility of using a hierarchy of models to describe diffusion tensor magnetic resonance (MR) data in fixed tissue. Parsimonious model selection criteria are used to choose among different models of diffusion within tissue. Using this information, we assess whether we can perform simultaneous tissue segmentation(More)
Pesticides commonly occur in aquatic systems and pose a substantial challenge to the conservation of many taxa. Ecotoxicology has traditionally met this challenge by focusing on short-term, single-species tests and conducting risk assessments based on the most sensitive species tested. Rarely have ecotoxicology data been examined from an evolutionary(More)