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An overview of the phylogeny of the Agaricales is presented based on a multilocus analysis of a six-gene region supermatrix. Bayesian analyses of 5611 nucleotide characters of rpb1, rpb1-intron 2, rpb2 and 18S, 25S, and 5.8S ribosomal RNA genes recovered six major clades, which are recognized informally and labeled the Agaricoid, Tricholomatoid, Marasmioid,(More)
Fungi play major roles in ecosystem processes, but the determinants of fungal diversity and biogeographic patterns remain poorly understood. Using DNA metabarcoding data from hundreds of globally distributed soil samples, we demonstrate that fungal richness is decoupled from plant diversity. The plant-to-fungus richness ratio declines exponentially toward(More)
Fungal species richness and abundance were compared in leaf litter of two tree species,Guarea guidonia andManilkara bidentata, in the Luquillo Mountains of Puerto Rico. Four litter samples yielded a total of 3337 isolates, ranging from 591 to 1259 isolates/sample. The number of species/sample ranged from 134 to 228. Many uncommon litter hyphomycetes were(More)
Native mixtures of extomycorrhizal fungi were found to infect Populus and Salix roots primarily in very moist but well drained soils in both the field and in controlled experiments (0 to −0.2 MPa), whereas native mixtures of VA-endomycorrhizal fungi infected roots over a much wider range of soil moisture (flooded to −3.4 MPa). Although a moisture gradient(More)
Recent research shows that nutrient fluxes are often pulsed In tropical forests, and that pulsed versus gradual inputs have different effects on the fates of nutrients in the ecosystem. Synchrony of nutrient mineralization with plant uptake can lower competition between microbes and plants for limiting nutrients while maintaining tight nutrient cycling,(More)
2006. The platypus in its place: nuclear genes and indels confirm the sister group relation of monotremes and therians. evidence for the last survivor of an ancient kangaroo lineage. of "hyopsodontids" to elephant shrews and a Holarctic origin of Afrotheria. Nature 434:497-501. The new classification of protists from the International Society of(More)
Data on macrofungal diversity and distribution patterns were compiled for major geographical regions of the world. Macrofungi are defined here to include ascomycetes and basidiomycetes with large, easily observed spore-bearing structures that form above or below ground. Each coauthor either provided data on a particular taxonomic group of macrofungi or(More)
Recent studies suggest that host-preferences are common among certain groups of tropical fungal decomposers but rare in others, and sometimes occur where we least expect them. Host preferences among microfungi and ascomycetes that decompose leaf litter are common but usually involve differences in relative frequencies more than presence/absence, so their(More)
DNA phylogenetic comparisons have shown that morphology-based species recognition often underestimates fungal diversity. Therefore, the need for accurate DNA sequence data, tied to both correct taxonomic names and clearly annotated specimen data, has never been greater. Furthermore, the growing number of molecular ecology and microbiome projects using(More)
Gradient analysis is rarely used in studies of fungal communities. Data on macromycetes from eight sites along an elevation gradient in central Veracruz, Mexico, were used to demonstrate methods for gradient analysis that can be applied to studies of communities of fungi. Selected sites from 100 to 3,500 m altitude represent tropical dry forest, tropical(More)