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We examined the role of microorganisms in the degradation of the organophosphate insecticide chlorpyrifos in soils from the United Kingdom and Australia. The kinetics of degradation in five United Kingdom soils varying in pH from 4.7 to 8.4 suggested that dissipation of chlorpyrifos was mediated by the cometabolic activities of the soil microorganisms.(More)
Multitrophic interactions are likely to be altered by climate change but there is little empirical evidence relating the responses of herbivores and parasitoids to abiotic factors. Here we investigated the effects of drought on an above/below-ground system comprising a generalist and a specialist aphid species (foliar herbivores), their parasitoids, and a(More)
Drought can alter plant quality and the strength of trophic interactions between herbivore groups, and is likely to increase in occurrence and severity under climate change. We hypothesized that changes in plant chemistry due to root herbivory and drought stress would affect the performance of a generalist and a specialist aphid species feeding on a(More)
Recombinant sucrose-6-phosphate synthase (SpsA) was synthesized in Escherichia coli BL21DE3 by using the spsA gene of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803. Transformants exhibited a 10,000-fold increase in survival compared to wild-type cells following either freeze-drying, air drying, or desiccation over phosphorus pentoxide. The phase(More)
Numerical simulation models provide a way to understand and predict the behavior of natural and human systems. Ideally, spatially-explicit models would be easily linked to a geographic information system (GIS) for data analysis and visualization. In the past, these two have not been well integrated for scientific uses. This lack of true integration hinders(More)
Understanding the factors influencing host-selection behavior of parasitoids is essential in studies on host-parasitoid ecology and evolution, and in combining sustainable strategies of pest management, such as host-plant resistance and biological control. The effects of host-plant resistance on the olfactory response and parasitism success by Cotesia(More)
Transgenic crops expressing Bt toxins have substantial benefits for growers in terms of reduced synthetic insecticide inputs, area-wide pest management and yield. This valuable technology depends upon delaying the evolution of resistance. The ‘high dose/refuge strategy’, in which a refuge of non-Bt plants is planted in close proximity to the Bt crop, is the(More)
The two biocontrol agents Amblyseius swirskii Athias-Henriot (Acari: Phytoseiidae) and Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae) have the potential to complement one another as part of an integrated pest management programme. While both can suppress whitefly and thrips infestations in protected crops, A. swirskii is primarily(More)