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In vertebrate embryos, the precursor cells of the central nervous system (CNS) are induced by signaling from the organizer region. Here we report the isolation of a novel vertebrate achaete-scute homolog, cash4, which is expressed in the presumptive posterior nervous system in response to such signaling. cash4 is first expressed in epiblast cells flanking(More)
PURPOSE Butyrate, a short chain fatty acid, was studied as a novel hyperpolarized substrate for use in dynamic nuclear polarization enhanced magnetic resonance spectroscopy experiments, to define the pathways of short chain fatty acid and ketone body metabolism in real time. METHODS Butyrate was polarized via the dynamic nuclear polarization process and(More)
PURPOSE To investigate left atrial volumes and function and their variability in healthy volunteers using steady state free precession (SSFP) and fast low angle shot (FLASH) sequences at both 1.5 and 3 T using both the short-axis and biplane area-length methods. MATERIALS AND METHODS Ten healthy volunteers underwent CMR at both 1.5 and 3 Tesla. The(More)
The potential association between microbial infection and reactivation of a multiple sclerosis (MS) lesion is an important issue that remains unresolved, primarily because of the absence of suitable animal models and imaging techniques. Here, we have evaluated this question in an empirical manner using immunohistochemistry and magnetic resonance imaging(More)
Neuronal glucose uptake was thought to be independent of insulin, being facilitated by glucose transporters GLUT1 and GLUT3, which do not require insulin signaling. However, it is now known that components of the insulin-mediated glucose uptake pathway, including neuronal insulin synthesis and the insulin-dependent glucose transporter GLUT4, are present in(More)
AIMS Technological limitations have restricted in vivo assessment of intracellular pH (pH(i)) in the myocardium. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of hyperpolarized [1-(13)C]pyruvate, coupled with (13)C magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), to measure pH(i) in the healthy and diseased heart. METHODS AND RESULTS Hyperpolarized(More)
Basic and clinical studies have shown that bone marrow cell therapy can improve cardiac function following infarction. In experimental animals, reported stem cell-mediated changes range from no measurable improvement to the complete restoration of function. In the clinic, however, the average improvement in left ventricular ejection fraction is around 2% to(More)
A fundamental modification to the conventional chemical shift imaging (CSI) method is described that improves the imaging of species with short T2's (i.e., less than approximately 2 ms). This approach minimizes the delay before each k-space point is collected. This results in different time delays, T(d), for different free induction decay (FID) acquisitions(More)
PURPOSE To demonstrate the feasibility of accelerating measurements of cardiac fiber structure using simultaneous multislice (SMS) imaging. METHODS SMS excitation with a blipped controlled aliasing (CAIPI) readout was incorporated into a diffusion-encoded stimulated echo pulse sequence to obtain diffusion measurements in three separate slices of the heart(More)
Many disease states are associated with regional or systemic hypoxia. The study of healthy individuals exposed to high-altitude hypoxia offers a way to explore hypoxic adaptation without the confounding effects of disease and therapeutic interventions. Using (31)P magnetic resonance spectroscopy and imaging, we investigated skeletal muscle energetics and(More)