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Xenobiotics induce the transcription of cytochromes P450 (CYPs) 2B and 3A through the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR; NR1I3) and pregnane X receptor (PXR; NR1I2), respectively. In this report, we have systematically compared a series of xenobiotics and natural steroids for their effects on mouse and human CAR and PXR. Our results demonstrate dual(More)
The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are nuclear receptors for fatty acids (FAs) that regulate glucose and lipid homeostasis. We report the crystal structure of the PPAR delta ligand-binding domain (LBD) bound to either the FA eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) or the synthetic fibrate GW2433. The carboxylic acids of EPA and GW2433 interact(More)
Bile acids regulate the transcription of genes that control cholesterol homeostasis through molecular mechanisms that are poorly understood. Physiological concentrations of free and conjugated chenodeoxycholic acid, lithocholic acid, and deoxycholic acid activated the farnesoid X receptor (FXR; NR1H4), an orphan nuclear receptor. As ligands, these bile(More)
The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are nuclear hormone receptors that regulate glucose and lipid homeostasis. The PPARgamma subtype plays a central role in the regulation of adipogenesis and is the molecular target for the 2, 4-thiazolidinedione class of antidiabetic drugs. Structural studies have revealed that agonist ligands activate(More)
Unilamellar vesicles of varying and reasonably uniform size were prepared from 1,2-dipalmitoyl-3-sn-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) by the extrusion procedure and sonication. Quasi-elastic light scattering was used to show that different vesicle preparations had mean (Z-averaged) diameters of 1340, 900, 770, 630, and 358 A (sonicated). Bilayer-phase behavior as(More)
BACKGROUND The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) were cloned as orphan members of the nuclear receptor superfamily of transcription factors. The identification of subtype-selective ligands for PPARalpha and PPARgamma has led to the discovery of their roles in the regulation of lipid metabolism and glucose homeostasis. No subtype-selective(More)
We have identified a novel series of antidiabetic N-(2-benzoylphenyl)-L-tyrosine derivatives which are potent, selective PPARgamma agonists. Through the use of in vitro PPARgamma binding and functional assays (2S)-3-(4-(benzyloxy)phenyl)-2-((1-methyl-3-oxo-3-phenylpropenyl)+ ++amin o)propionic acid (2) was identified as a structurally novel PPARgamma(More)
A cell-free assay was developed for the orphan nuclear receptor LXRalpha that measures the ligand-dependent recruitment of a peptide from the steroid receptor coactivator 1 (SRC1) to the nuclear receptor. Using this ligand-sensing assay (LiSA), the structural requirements for activation of the receptor by oxysterols and related compounds were studied. The(More)
Several dominant mutations at the murine agouti locus result in the expression of a number of phenotypic changes, including a predominantly yellow coat color, obesity, and hyperinsulinemia. The mutants exhibit ectopic overexpression of normal agouti protein, suggesting that agouti regulates coat coloration by direct antagonism of the(More)