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Codon usage bias (CUB) in Drosophila is higher for X-linked genes than for autosomal genes. One possible explanation is that the higher effective recombination rate for genes on the X chromosome compared with the autosomes reduces their susceptibility to Hill-Robertson effects, and thus enhances the efficacy of selection on codon usage. The genome sequence(More)
Adaptive evolution occurs when fitness covaries with genetic merit for a trait (or traits). The breeder's equation (BE), in both its univariate and multivariate forms, allows us to predict this process by combining estimates of selection on phenotype with estimates of genetic (co)variation. However, predictions are only valid if all factors causal for(More)
Nonadditive effects of group membership are generated when individuals respond differently to the same social environment and may alter predictions about how behavioural evolution will occur. Despite this importance, the relationship between an individual's behaviour in two different social contexts and how reciprocal interactions among individuals within(More)
Parenting in the burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides is complex and, unusually, the sex and number of parents that can be present is flexible. Such flexibility is expected to involve specialized behaviour by the two sexes under biparental conditions. Here, we show that offspring fare equally well regardless of the sex or number of parents present.(More)
Testing for conserved and novel mechanisms underlying phenotypic evolution requires a diversity of genomes available for comparison spanning multiple independent lineages. For example, complex social behavior in insects has been investigated primarily with eusocial lineages, nearly all of which are Hymenoptera. If conserved genomic influences on sociality(More)
While early models of ejaculate allocation predicted that both relative testes and ejaculate size should increase with sperm competition intensity across species, recent models predict that ejaculate size may actually decrease as testes size and sperm competition intensity increase, owing to the confounding effect of potential male mating rate. A recent(More)
Although major genetic networks controlling early liver specification and morphogenesis are known, the mechanisms responsible for postnatal hepatic maturation are poorly understood. Here we employ global analyses of the mouse liver transcriptome to demonstrate that postnatal remodelling of the liver is accompanied by large-scale transcriptional and(More)
We recently used in vitro selection to identify many deoxyribozymes that catalyze DNA phosphodiester bond hydrolysis and create 5'-phosphate and 3'-hydroxyl termini. Alternatively, numerous deoxyribozymes have been identified for catalysis of RNA cleavage by 2'-hydroxyl transesterification, forming 2',3'-cyclic phosphate and 5'-hydroxyl termini. In this(More)
Metagenomic studies are leading to the discovery of a hidden diversity of RNA viruses. These new viruses are poorly characterized and new approaches are needed predict the host species these viruses pose a risk to. The rhabdoviruses are a diverse family of RNA viruses that includes important pathogens of humans, animals, and plants. We have discovered(More)
At northern latitudes, the most robust cue for assessing the onset of winter is the shortening of day lengths. Many species use day length as a cue to increase their cold tolerance and/or enter into diapause, but little is known about changes in gene expression that occur under different day lengths. We investigate the gene expression changes associated(More)