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Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) was used to investigate intracranial tumours in vitro and in vivo. Biopsy specimens were studied from 47 patients, 11 of whom were also examined in vivo. Analysis was based on the signals from N-acetylaspartate (NAA), phosphocreatine plus creatine (Cr), choline-containing compounds (Cho), alanine (Ala), and(More)
Hepatic phosphorus-31 magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P MRS) was undertaken in 85 patients with histologically proven cirrhosis of varying etiologies and functional severity. Reference data were acquired from 16 healthy volunteers who had no history or evidence of liver disease or alcohol abuse. In vivo hepatic 31P MR spectra were acquired with pulse(More)
Cerebral phosphorus-31 magnetic resonance spectroscopy was undertaken in 33 patients with biopsy-proven cirrhosis: 6 had no evidence of neuropsychiatric impairment on standard clinical, psychometric and electrophysiological testing; 8 had evidence of subclinical hepatic encephalopathy; and 19 were classified as having overt hepatic encephalopathy. The(More)
A method for determining flow by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging is described. A conventional spin-echo imaging sequence is employed with the addition of balanced gradient pulses on either side of the pi radiofrequency pulse. Flow velocities in the direction orthogonal to the image plane are determined by the phase shifts in the NMR image.(More)
The theoretical basis for the use of paramagnetic agents to enhance proton relaxation is described. Factors of importance in the design of contrast agents are considered. Measurements of changes in T1 and T2 in vitro due to Gd3+-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) are used to predict changes in the intensity of transverse magnetisation seen with(More)
Four-dimensional chemical shift imaging was used to map spatial variations in phosphorus metabolites in a patient with carcinoid metastases in the liver. The results were compared to those from an age and sex matched volunteer, with no known previous history of liver disease. In the patient local abnormalities were observed. These included elevated(More)
All users of NMR equipment are familiar with the desirability of achieving as high a quality of field as possible. On the other hand, it is easy to forget that the field quality of relevance in both imaging and spectroscopy is that over individual voxels, and not the whole volume. This note demonstrates in practice how performance in poor fields is improved(More)
The aim of this study was to assess the possibility of regenerating nucleotide triphosphates (NTP) in the pig liver following its harvest and subsequent storage on ice. This study has used a pig model that allowed human donor liver retrieval techniques and methods of storage to be utilized. In vitro phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance (31P-NMR)(More)
A semi-automated, metabolite prior-knowledge-based, lineshape fitting analysis has been developed to assess the dynamic biochemical changes found in ex vivo 31P NMR pig liver preservation studies. Due to the inherent experimental limitations of the ex vivo study and the complexity of the composite phosphorus resonances, metabolite information obtained in(More)
Fluid attenuated inversion recovery pulse sequences with a long echo time (TE) have been used to image the brain in one volunteer and four patients. The long inversion time used with this sequence suppresses the signal from CSF and the long TE produces very heavy T2 weighting. The marked reduction in flow artefact from CSF and the high T2 weighting enabled(More)