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A larval feeding assay for detection of nematode anthelmintic resistance to macrocyclic lactones and imidazothiazoles is described. The estimated concentration of anthelmintic required to inhibit larval feeding in 50% of L1's (IC50) that were resistant to either macrocyclic lactones or imidazothiazoles were significantly higher (P < or = 0.05) than those of(More)
An in vitro direct challenge (IVDC) method in which abomasal tissue explants maintained at 37 degrees C in Hanks/Hepes solution (pH 7.6) in a high oxygen concentration (incubator gassed with pure oxygen and sealed prior to use) were-challenged with exsheathed third stage larvae of Teladorsagia circumcincta has been used to investigate the tissue association(More)
Selection for milbemycin resistance in a population of Teladorsagia circumcincta was examined in a sheep flock in which a lack of persistence of an oral dose of 0.2 mg/kg moxidectin against T circumcincta had previously been identified. A faecal egg count reduction test also showed resistance to benzimidazole, levamisole and avermectin anthelmintic groups.(More)
Cyathostomins are considered to be the most important group of helminths to affect equids due to their high prevalence, potential pathogenicity and ability to develop anthelmintic resistance. Their control relies almost exclusively on frequent anthelmintic use. Currently, fenbendazole (FBZ), pyrantel embonate (PYR), ivermectin (IVM) and moxidectin (MOX) are(More)
Multiple resistance to benzimidazole, imidazothiazole and macrocyclic lactone anthelmintics is an emerging problem in the south-east of Scotland. The general management and nematode control strategies employed in four affected flocks (flocks 1-4) were investigated in an attempt to identify the risk factors which might have led to the appearance of(More)
The Consortium for Anthelmintic Resistance and Susceptibility (CARS) brings together researchers worldwide, with a focus of advancing knowledge of resistance and providing information on detection methods and treatment strategies. Advances in this field suggest mechanisms and features of resistance that are shared among different classes of anthelmintic.(More)
The cause of ill thrift and deaths was investigated in a group of 40 Scottish lowground ewes, which had been treated with levamisole and then turned onto clean grazing after lambing, 6-8 weeks previously. Concurrent haemonchosis and teladorsagiosis were diagnosed, putatively associated with the spring maturation of large numbers of hypobiotic larvae. Ill(More)
Control of a benzimidazole-, levamisole- and ivermectin-resistant population of Teladorsagia circumcincta was attempted using moxidectin administered orally at the manufacturer's recommended dose rate of 200 microg/kg bodyweight. Ewes were dosed after lambing with the aim of controlling their periparturient rise in faecal egg output and lambs were dosed at(More)
The recent focus of strategies to slow the rate of development of anthelmintic resistance in gastro-intestinal parasites has centred on the need to better manage the parasite population that is unexposed to the drug, i.e. in refugia. One strategy involves the use of targeted selective treatments (TST) where anthelmintics are only administered to those(More)
The anthelmintic sensitivity of two field-derived isolates (designated FI001 and FI004) of cattle nematodes from beef farms in Scotland were investigated in a controlled efficacy test (CET). Efficacies of ivermectin pour-on (IVM-PO), IVM injectable (IVM-INJ) and moxidectin pour-on (MOX-PO) formulations were assessed. In each group, five helminth-naïve(More)