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P-glycoprotein (P-gp) homologues, belonging to the ATP Binding Cassette (ABC) transporter family, are thought to play an important role in the resistance of gastro-intestinal nematode parasites against macrocyclic lactones. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of various P-gp interfering compounds on the efficacy of ivermectin (IVM) in(More)
The Consortium for Anthelmintic Resistance and Susceptibility (CARS) brings together researchers worldwide, with a focus of advancing knowledge of resistance and providing information on detection methods and treatment strategies. Advances in this field suggest mechanisms and features of resistance that are shared among different classes of anthelmintic.(More)
The anthelmintic resistance status of two field isolates derived from farms (farm A and B) located near Edinburgh were examined using both controlled efficacy tests (CET) and faecal egg count reduction tests (FECRT). Efficacies against fenbendazole (FBZ), levamisole (LEV) and ivermectin (IVM) and, for one isolate, against combinations of these anthelmintics(More)
Cyathostomins are considered to be the most important group of helminths to affect equids due to their high prevalence, potential pathogenicity and ability to develop anthelmintic resistance. Their control relies almost exclusively on frequent anthelmintic use. Currently, fenbendazole (FBZ), pyrantel embonate (PYR), ivermectin (IVM) and moxidectin (MOX) are(More)
Anthelmintic efficacies against juvenile developing populations of Teladorsagia species that were known to be resistant to anthelmintics from all three broad spectrum families were examined using a controlled efficacy test. Fenbendazole (FBZ), levamisole (LEV), ivermectin (IVM), combinations of these anthelmintics and moxidectin (MOX) were assessed in(More)
A larval feeding assay for detection of nematode anthelmintic resistance to macrocyclic lactones and imidazothiazoles is described. The estimated concentration of anthelmintic required to inhibit larval feeding in 50% of L1's (IC50) that were resistant to either macrocyclic lactones or imidazothiazoles were significantly higher (P < or = 0.05) than those of(More)
An in vitro direct challenge (IVDC) method in which abomasal tissue explants maintained at 37 degrees C in Hanks/Hepes solution (pH 7.6) in a high oxygen concentration (incubator gassed with pure oxygen and sealed prior to use) were-challenged with exsheathed third stage larvae of Teladorsagia circumcincta has been used to investigate the tissue association(More)
Selection for milbemycin resistance in a population of Teladorsagia circumcincta was examined in a sheep flock in which a lack of persistence of an oral dose of 0.2 mg/kg moxidectin against T circumcincta had previously been identified. A faecal egg count reduction test also showed resistance to benzimidazole, levamisole and avermectin anthelmintic groups.(More)
Thirty-eight sheep flocks, predominantly from the south/central Scotland, were examined using a faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) for the presence of ivermectin (IVM) resistant nematodes. Efficacies of less than 95%, 14-17 days post-treatment, were identified in 6 of 17 naturally grazing flocks where pre-treatment faecal egg counts were in excess of(More)
Lectins are plant secondary metabolites (PSM) found in many forages and which may confer anthelmintic properties to gastrointestinal parasites through disrupting the development of parasitic larvae throughout its life cycle. In experiment 1, the ability of the plant lectins jacalin (JAC), concanavalin A (Con A), phytohemagglutinin E2L2 (PHA-E2L2),(More)