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Suspensions of Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis spores were exposed to conventional thermal and microwave energy at 2,450 MHz. The degrees of inactivation by the different energy sources were compared quantitatively. During the transient heating period by microwave energy, approximately a 6 log cycle reduction in viability was encountered for E. coli.(More)
We discuss the utilization of a novel two-phase aqueous nonionic micellar system for the purification and concentration of biomolecules, such as proteins and viruses, by liquid-liquid extraction. The nonionic surfactant n-decyl tetra(ethylene oxide), C10E4, phase separates in water into two coexisting aqueous micellar phases by increasing temperature. The(More)
A chromatographic method was developed for quantitative analysis of site-specific microheterogeneity of the two N-linked glycosylation sites in recombinant human interferon-gamma produced from Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell culture. After the interferon-gamma was harvested by affinity chromatography, the tryptic digestion was carried out. The two(More)
Process scaleup for stirred-tank animal cell cultures such as suspension and microcarrier cultures often begins at the bench scale in small spinner vessels. In order to initiate process development under the proper conditions, it is essential to know the physical conditions under which the cells are grown. In this article, power inputs and surface oxygen(More)
A structured model for the penicillin fermentation is presented. This model includes three different cell types: (1) hyphae tips, (2) penicillin-producing cells, and (3) degenerated, metabolically inactive cells. Cell degeneration has been described previously as a gradual loss of cytoplasmic material by endogenous metabolism. The rate at which such loss of(More)
The partitioning of partially folded polypeptide chains between correctly folded native states and off-pathway inclusion bodies is a critical reaction in biotechnology. Multimeric partially folded intermediates, representing early stages of the aggregation pathway for the P22 tailspike protein, have been trapped in the cold and isolated by nondenaturing(More)
The use of immobilization in extractive lactic acid fermentation by Lactobacillus delbrueckii is preferred. In this article, the mathematical simulations to examine the influences of substrate and product transport were performed to assess the overall performance. The simulations showed that transport of the substrate in k-carrageenan beads was not a rate(More)
Bovine carbonic anhydrase B (CAB) is chosen as the model protein to study the phenomenon of protein aggregation, which often occurs during the refolding process. Refolding of CAB from 5 M GuHCl has been observed by quasi-elastic light scattering (QLS), which confirms the formation of a molten globular protein structure as reported previously [Semisotnov, G.(More)
Recycle unit operations for suspension cell cultures may be improved by flocculation of the cells. A flocculant search was conducted, and it was found that where strongly cationic polymers were severly toxic to the cells, neutral and anionic polymers were nontoxic and ineffective at flocculating the cells. A weak and poorly soluble polycation,(More)