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BACKGROUND The World Health Organization recommends serum ferritin concentrations as the best indicator of iron deficiency (ID). Unfortunately, ferritin increases with infections; hence, the prevalence of ID is underestimated. OBJECTIVE The objective was to estimate the increase in ferritin in 32 studies of apparently healthy persons by using 2(More)
BACKGROUND In the UK EPIC validation studies, the accuracy of several methods was assessed by comparison with to-day weighed records and the biomarkers, 24-hour urine nitrogen (N) and potassium (K), plasma carotenoids and plasma vitamin C. METHODS Comparisons between methods were made on 156 women, studied over 1 year at 3-monthly intervals at home. On(More)
BACKGROUND Vitamin A deficiency adversely affects child morbidity and survival. This deficiency is estimated by measurement of plasma retinol concentrations, but because plasma retinol is reduced by clinical and subclinical infection, this proxy measure can lead to overestimation. Infection and trauma are accompanied by rises in concentrations of(More)
Smoking is associated with oxidative stress and increased risks of many chronic diseases that both shorten life and impair its quality. Low concentrations of several micronutrients, especially the antioxidants vitamin C and beta-carotene, are also associated with smoking, and there has been much interest in determining whether deficiencies in micronutrients(More)
BACKGROUND Plasma retinol concentrations are depressed by infection but are commonly used to assess vitamin A status. OBJECTIVE We measured 2 acute phase proteins, alpha(1)-antichymotrypsin (ACT) and alpha(1)-acid glycoprotein (AGP), to determine whether they could be used to assist in interpreting vitamin A status. DESIGN In 1997, a 2-stage(More)
Plasma retinol and 5 carotenes were assayed by high performance liquid chromatography in Thai rural and urban malaria patients and matched control subjects. Plasma retinol was lower in the rural than in the urban controls and both groups of malaria patients had lower serum retinol concentrations than their respective controls. 29% (6/21) of the rural(More)
A method is described for simultaneously determining retinol, alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene, alpha-carotene, lycopene, and beta-cryptoxanthin in 0.25 mL of plasma. Plasma mixed with sodium dodecyl sulfate is deproteinized with ethanol containing tocopherol acetate, then extracted with heptane. The evaporated organic layer is reconstituted with mobile(More)
Results from analysis of 24 h urine collections, verified for completeness with para-amino benzoic acid, and blood samples collected over 1 year were compared with 16 d weighed records of all food consumed collected over the year, and with results from 24 h recalls, food-frequency questionnaires and estimated food records in 160 women. Using the weighed(More)
A food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and carotenoid database with information on alpha- and beta-carotene, lutein, lycopene and beta-cryptoxanthin was prepared and used to compare the carotenoid intakes in five European countries: UK, Republic of Ireland, Spain, France and The Netherlands. Eighty, age- (25-45 years) and sex-matched volunteers were recruited(More)
PURPOSE At the macula, the carotenoids meso-zeaxanthin (MZ), lutein (L), and zeaxanthin (Z) are collectively referred to as macular pigment (MP). This study was designed to measure serum and macular responses to a macular carotenoid formulation. MATERIALS AND METHODS Ten subjects were recruited into this study (five normal and five with early age-related(More)