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Two vesicular glutamate transporters, VGLUT1 and VGLUT2, have recently been identified, and it has been reported that they are expressed by largely nonoverlapping populations of glutamatergic neurons in the brain. We have used immunocytochemistry with antibodies against both transporters, together with markers for various populations of spinal neurons, in(More)
To investigate the electrophysiological properties, synaptic connections, and anatomy of individual parvalbumin-immunoreactive (PV-IR) and cholecystokinin-immunoreactive (CCK-IR) interneurones in CA1, dual intracellular recordings using biocytin-filled microelectrodes in slices of adult rat hippocampus were combined with fluorescence labelling of PV- and(More)
Lamina II contains a large number of interneurons involved in modulation and transmission of somatosensory (including nociceptive) information. However, its neuronal circuitry is poorly understood due to the difficulty of identifying functional populations of interneurons. This information is important for understanding nociceptive processing and for(More)
GABA and glycine are inhibitory neurotransmitters used by many neurons in the spinal dorsal horn, and intrathecal administration of GABA(A) and glycine receptor antagonists produces behavioural signs of allodynia, suggesting that these transmitters have an important role in spinal pain mechanisms. Several studies have described a substantial loss of(More)
The inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA is synthesized by glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), and two isoforms of this enzyme exist: GAD65 and GAD67. Immunocytochemical studies of the spinal cord have shown that whilst both are present in the dorsal horn, GAD67 is the predominant form in the ventral horn. The present study was carried out to determine the(More)
Presynaptic inhibition of primary muscle spindle (group Ia) afferent terminals in motor nuclei of the spinal cord plays an important role in regulating motor output and is produced by a population of GABAergic axon terminals known as P boutons. Despite extensive investigation, the cells that mediate this control have not yet been identified. In this work,(More)
It has been proposed that death of inhibitory interneurons in the dorsal horn contributes to the neuropathic pain that follows partial nerve injury. In this study, we have used two approaches to test whether there is neuronal death in the dorsal horn in the spared nerve injury (SNI) model. We performed a stereological analysis of the packing density of(More)
The central arborizations of large myelinated cutaneous afferents normally extend as far dorsally as the ventral part of lamina II in rat spinal cord. Woolf et al. (1992) reported that after nerve injury some of these afferents sprouted into lamina I and the dorsal part of lamina II, and it has been suggested that this could contribute to allodynia(More)
Myelinated primary afferent axons use glutamate as their principal neurotransmitter. We have shown previously that central terminals of myelinated tactile and proprioceptive afferents contain the vesicular glutamate transporter VGLUT1. Peripheral nerve injury is known to induce changes in the anatomy, neurochemistry, and physiology of primary afferents. In(More)
A new method has been developed for the automatic correction for attenuation in ultrasonic pulse-echo imaging. By assuming that a specified relationship holds between local attenuation and local backscatter throughout each pulse-echo signal, a gain factor may be calculated that more appropriately compensates for attenuation at every depth. The rationale(More)