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1 Background There are several researches on virtual environments for human interaction. In these researches, a 3-D virtual space is reconstructed, in which each participant is represented as an avatar by computer graphics techniques. Through the reconstructed virtual space, each participant sees and hears other participants' activities from the position(More)
The purpose of this study was to clarify the relation between joking behaviors with friends and personality factors (preference for humor, self-esteem). Also the study examined whether relational factors (cognitions of the joking relationship) affect joking behavior. In Study 1, undergraduates (n = 238) completed a questionnaire concerning joking behaviors(More)
The purposes of this study were to develop and validate the Empathic-Affective Response Scale, and to examine the relationship of empathic-affective responses with prosocial behaviors and aggressive behaviors. Undergraduate students (N = 443) participated in a questionnaire study. The results of factor analysis indicated that empathic-affective responses(More)
The aim of this study was to construct a model of the elicitation of schadenfreude through vengeance, envy, and trait anger. Japanese undergraduates (239 men, 284 women) completed questionnaires assessing dispositional vengeance, trait anger, and empathy. Then, participants read two scenarios: one about a target person's success and one about his or her(More)
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