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Menkes syndrome in humans is an X-linked disorder characterized in part by abnormal copper transport, cellular copper sequestration, and defective crosslinking of collagen and elastin. A decrease in the functional activity of lysyl oxidase, a cuproenzyme, is thought in part to be responsible for the decreased crosslinking of collagen and elastin. It has(More)
Mice fed a chemically defined diet devoid of pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) grew poorly, failed to reproduce, and became osteolathyritic. Moreover, severely affected mice had friable skin, skin collagen that was readily extractable into neutral salt solutions, and decreased lysyl oxidase. The identification of functional defects in connective tissue and the(More)
In the past 20 yr, enormous strides have been made in the field of molecular biology. We are now in a period characterized by rapid progress in the understanding of the fundamentals of metabolic regulation as well as a deepening appreciation of the potential for biotechnological applications in research. Moreover, there has been an increase in the use of(More)
The relative levels of elastin-specific mRNA were used as a measure of tropoelastin expression in uteri from pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats. The levels of elastin-specific mRNA were also correlated with values for net tropoelastin production and net deposition of mature, crosslinked elastin. The total content of uterine elastin increased throughout gestation,(More)
The variation of fluorescence of two fibrillar elastins as a result of preparation methods was studied and the major common fluorophore was identified. Dilution of acid-hydrolyzed bovine ligament elastin 1:2500 (g:ml) overcame inner filter effects (IFE) to reveal fluorescence excitation and emission maxima of 330/408 nm. An IFE effect observed in(More)
Lysyl oxidase (protein-lysine 6-oxidase; EC 1.4.3.13) is a copper-containing enzyme that functions extracellularly and catalyses the oxidative deamination of peptidyl lysine. Lysyl oxidase was purified 150-175-fold from urea extracts of rat skin and uteri. Features of the enzyme were similar to those reported previously for lysyl oxidase obtained from rat(More)
Accelerated proteolysis of tropoelastin and elastin occurs in the arteries of chicks rendered nutritionally copper-deficient. The process results in part from decreased elastin crosslinking. Repletion of copper-deficient chicks with copper causes a deposition of elastin that is proteinase resistant. Resistance to proteolysis is conferred within 48 h of(More)
Accelerated proteolysis of tropoelastin and elastin occurs in the major arteries of chicks fed copper-deficient diets. Signs of elastin degradation are not obvious in normal arteries of copper-supplemented chicks. It is proposed that the sources of proteases that effect elastin degradation are from plasma and serum. Both calcium-dependent proteases and(More)