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The extracellular loop of P2X channel proteins contains a sequence stretch (positions 170-330) that exhibits similarities with the catalytic domains of class II aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases as shown by secondary structure predictions and sequence alignments. The arrangement of several conserved cysteines (positions 110-170) shows similarities with metal(More)
This compilation presents in a small space the tRNA sequences so far published. The numbering of tRNAPhe from yeast is used following the rules proposed by the participants of the Cold Spring Harbor Meeting on tRNA 1978 (1,2;Fig. 1). This numbering allows comparisons with the three dimensional structure of tRNAPhe. The secondary structure of tRNAs is(More)
Lysyl-tRNA synthetase catalyses the formation of lysyl-transfer RNA, Lys-tRNA(Lys), which then is ready to insert lysine into proteins. Lysine is important for proteins since it is one of only two proteinogenic amino acids carrying an alkaline functional group. Seven genes of lysyl-tRNA synthetases have been localized in five organisms, and the nucleotide(More)
Glutamyl-tRNA synthetase (GluRS) belongs to the class I aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases and shows several similarities with glutaminyl-tRNA synthetase concerning structure and catalytic properties. Phylogenetic studies suggested that both diverged from an ancestral glutamyl-tRNA synthetase responsible for the gluta-mylation of tRNA(Glu) and tRNA(Gln), and whose(More)
Histidyl-tRNA synthetase (HisRS) is responsible for the synthesis of histidyl-transfer RNA, which is essential for the incorporation of histidine into proteins. This amino acid has uniquely moderate basic properties and is an important group in many catalytic functions of enzymes. A compilation of currently known primary structures of HisRS shows that the(More)
Among the twenty aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases glutaminyl-tRNA synthetase occupies a special position: it is one of only two enzymes of this family which is not found in all organisms, being mainly absent from gram positive eubacteria, archaebacteria and organelles. The E. coli GlnRS is relatively small with 553 amino acids and a molecular mass of 64.4 kDa and(More)
The process for selecting potent and effective carbohydrate antigens is not well-established. A combination of synthetic glycan microarray screening, surface plasmon resonance analysis, and saturation transfer difference NMR spectroscopy was used to dissect the antibody-binding surface of a carbohydrate antigen, revealing crucial binding elements with(More)
Glycyl-tRNA synthetase, a class II aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase, catalyzes the synthesis of glycyl-tRNA, which is required to insert glycine into proteins. In a side reaction the enzyme also synthesizes dinuceloside polyphosphates, which probably participate in regulation of cell functions. Glycine is the smallest amino acid occurring in natural proteins,(More)
Threonine contributes to the solubility and reactivity of proteins by its hydroxy group as well as to the formation and stability of the hydrophobic core of proteins by its methyl group. One may assume that the use of this bifunctional and simply structured amino acid was established early in evolution. Whereas the catalytic pathway of threonine activation(More)