D . H . Coppenhaver

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The interferons (IFN) are one of the body's natural defensive responses to such foreign components as microbes, tumors, and antigens. The IFN response begins with the production of the IFN proteins (alpha, beta, and gamma), which then induce the antiviral, antimicrobial, antitumor, and immunomodulatory actions of IFN. Recent advances have led to Food and(More)
Human arenaviral infections have a high mortality, and are dangerous to work with in the laboratory. There is a need for good antiviral agents to treat these infections. Pichinde virus infection of the inbred strain 13 guinea pig is a relatively safe, good animal model for human arenavirus infections. Mortality is consistently 100% between days 12 and 25(More)
A gene encoding the cytotoxic enterotoxin (Act) from Aeromonas hydrophila was hyperexpressed with the pET, pTRX, and pGEX vector systems. Maximum toxin yield was obtained with the pTRX vector. Approximately 40 to 60% of Act was in a soluble form with the pTRX and pET vector systems. The toxin protein was purified to homogeneity by a combination of ammonium(More)
A virus inhibitor found in gastric secretions and in extracts from gastrointestinal tissues is described. The inhibitor shares a number of characteristics with the recently described contact-blocking virus inhibitor (CVI), which is produced by unstimulated cells in culture, and occurs naturally in some body fluids. The new inhibitor, which we have(More)
A bacterial protein toxin possessing hemolytic, enterotoxic, and cytotoxic activities as well as cross-reactivity to cholera toxin was purified from culture filtrates of a human diarrheal isolate of Aeromonas hydrophila (SSU). This cytolytic enterotoxin was purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation, hydrophobic chromatography using phenyl-Sepharose,(More)
Innate antiviral substances occur in vertebrates and may function as host defenses. Virus infections are common among invertebrates, but little is known about the ability of invertebrates to control viral infections. Pre-existing antiviral substances may be particularly important, since invertebrates lack the antiviral defense conferred by specific(More)
Several antiviral substances have been detected in human serum but few have been shown to possess broad antiviral activity. These broadly active antiviral molecules could be of significance as innate defense mechanisms. We have previously identified and characterized a broadly antiviral glycoprotein, UTI3, which accounts for 50 antiviral units/ml of human(More)
Patients with severe Lassa fever have high serum levels of liver enzymes. Studies of the histology of the liver have shown only minor alterations, seemingly insufficient to account for death. Pichinde virus is an arenavirus which causes severe illness similar to Lassa fever in strain 13 guinea pigs, but does not cause severe illness in man. This can serve(More)
Interferon-alpha inducers were previously shown to cause human lymphocyte production of a corticotropin (ACTH)-like peptide. Thyrotropin (TSH) was not produced under these conditions. In contrast, this report shows that a T-cell mitogen (staphylococcal enterotoxin A), which does not induce the ACTH-like peptide, caused human lymphocyte production of an(More)
To determine the degree of similarity between pituitary and lymphocyte proopiomelanocortin, the lymphocyte mRNA was reverse transcribed, cloned, and sequenced. Murine lymphocyte mRNA was first purified by oligo(dT)-cellulose affinity chromatography and was reverse transcribed by using a selective 3' antisense oligonucleotide primer directed at the boundary(More)