D. G. Walker

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We have previously developed and characterized isolated microglia and astrocyte cultures from rapid (<4 h) brain autopsies of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and nondemented elderly control (ND) patients. In the present study, we evaluate the inflammatory repertoire of AD and ND microglia cultured from white matter (corpus callosum) and gray matter (superior(More)
Receptor-mediated interactions with amyloid beta-peptide (Abeta) could be important in the evolution of the inflammatory processes and cellular dysfunction that are prominent in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology. One candidate receptor is the receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (RAGE), which can bind Abeta and transduce signals leading to cellular(More)
The membrane attack complex, C5b-9, is of considerable importance in many inflammatory reactions. It is the terminal, cytolytic component of both classical and alternative pathway activation, and its presence presupposes other potentially destructive complement constituents, including anaphylotoxins and opsonins. We have characterized C5b-9 and its C9(More)
Microglia were successfully cultured from human brain tissue from normal and neurologically diseased cases obtained 3.5-10 hours postmortem. Final cell preparations were more than 99% pure as judged by latex bead phagocytosis, expression of microglial phenotypic markers, and absence of astrocytic markers. The expression of complement genes C1qB, C3, and C4(More)
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a uniquely human disorder. Despite intense research, the lack of availability of model systems has hindered AD studies though in recent years transgenic mouse models have been produced, which develop AD-like amyloid beta peptide (Abeta) plaques. For the study of inflammatory changes in AD brains, these transgenic mice may have(More)
Brain deposition of the amyloid beta-peptide (Abeta) is a critical step in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and human cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA). A small fraction of AD and CAA cases are caused by gene mutations leading to increased production and deposition of Abeta, but for the majority, there is no known direct genetic cause. We have(More)
Microglia express many leukocyte surface antigens which are upregulated in such chronic degenerative neurological diseases as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). These surface antigens include leukocyte common antigen, immunoglobulin Fc receptors, MHC class I and class II glycoproteins, beta 2-integrins, and the vitronectin(More)
The immunohistochemical distribution of clusterin (SP40,40, SGP-2) was determined in Alzheimer disease (AD) and normal human brain tissue and compared with the distributions of vitronectin, protectin and the complement membrane attack complex (MAC). Antibodies to all four proteins showed staining of dystrophic neurites and neuropil threads in AD tissue, and(More)
The proto-oncogene Ret, a membrane-associated receptor protein tyrosine kinase, has recently been shown to be a component of the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) receptor complex. GDNF has potent dopaminergic neurotrophic properties and has been suggested as a treatment for Parkinson's disease (PD). In this study, tissue sections of human(More)
C1 inhibitor was identified in human brain tissue by Western blotting and by immunohistochemistry using multiple antibodies to the native protein. The presence of C1 inhibitor mRNA was identified by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis of brain mRNA extracts. The mRNA was also detected in cultured postmortem human microglia and in the(More)