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Dissections of Sudan black B stained specimens reveal that, of a complex of medial, intermediate, and lateral muscles of skates, presumed homologous to the cucullaris of sharks, only the lateral muscle is innervated by a branch or branches of the vagus and is inserted, in part, to the fused pharyngobranchials of the caudal visceral arches. The medial and(More)
A complex of three muscles (one lateral, one intermediate and one medial in position) in the clearnose skate, Raja eglanteria, is believed to be wholly, or in part, homologous to the cucullaris (trapezius). The retrograde transport of horseradish peroxidase was used to discover the central location of the motoneurons that supply each of these muscles.(More)
  • D G Sperry
  • The Journal of comparative neurology
  • 1987
During normal development, tadpoles of Xenopus laevis demonstrate large variations in body size that are carried through metamorphosis. This variation in size exists at the stages when lumbar lateral motor column (L-LMC) motoneurons are produced and when neuronal cell death in this neuron population occurs. Body size, hindlimb size, motoneuron number, and(More)
Xenopus laevis tadpoles reared in a 0.01% solution of 6-n-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU) are blocked in their development at larval stage 54 but continue to increase in size. When released from the effects of PTU they metamorphose into frogs of sizes significantly larger than those of their untreated siblings. Using this size difference to examine the hypothesis(More)
  • D G Sperry
  • The Journal of comparative neurology
  • 1988
This study was undertaken to determine how increasing ploidy in Xenopus laevis affected the size of the lumbar lateral motor column (L-LMC) motoneuron population, the size of representative hindlimb muscles, and the relationship between these features in animals at the completion of metamorphosis. Triploids were produced by exposing fertilized diploid eggs(More)
Microridges (MR), also called microvillar ridges, microplicae and cytoplasmic folds, have been noted on many epithelial surfaces. Several functions have been proposed for these structures. In the present study we examine the mechanical role that microridges may play in holding mucus to the lumenal surface to the esophagus in the trout Salmo gairdneri. Our(More)
  • D G Sperry
  • The Journal of comparative neurology
  • 1988
The effects of increasing ploidy on the development of the lumbar lateral motor column (L-LMC) in Xenopus laevis were investigated in order to determine how early events contribute to producing the significant difference in the average number of motoneurons present in diploid and triploid animals after cell death (Sperry: J. Comp. Neurol. 277:499-508, '88).(More)
Two chromosome mosaic Xenopus laevis, one tadpole and one metamorphic animal, both with different sizes of neurons on the left and right sides of their brains and spinal cords, have left and right lumbar lateral motor columns (L-LMCs) of equal lengths but composed of strikingly different numbers of motoneurons (40% fewer motoneurons on the side composed of(More)
The vagus nerve of the clearnose skate, Raja eglanteria, on the basis of its central and peripheral patterns and in light of the embryonic origin of its innervation fields, is viewed as a collector of separate elements. The peripheral elements include a series of branchial nerves to a segmented pharynx, an intestinal nerve to an unsegmented gut, a nerve or(More)
  • D G Sperry
  • The Journal of comparative neurology
  • 1990
The sizes of the lumbar and thoracic dorsal root ganglion cell populations in normally developing newly metamorphosed Xenopus laevis were measured in order to determine whether these neuron populations have the same characteristics as the hindlimb motoneuron population (i.e., large individual as well as sibling group differences, striking bilateral(More)