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The mtDNA variation of 321 individuals from 17 Native American populations was examined by high-resolution restriction endonuclease analysis. All mtDNAs were amplified from a variety of sources by using PCR. The mtDNA of a subset of 38 of these individuals was also analyzed by D-loop sequencing. The resulting data were combined with previous mtDNA data from(More)
BACKGROUND Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) is a serine/threonine protein kinase, the activity of which is inhibited by a variety of extracellular stimuli including insulin, growth factors, cell specification factors and cell adhesion. Consequently, inhibition of GSK-3 activity has been proposed to play a role in the regulation of numerous signalling(More)
Native Americans derive from a small number of Asian founders who likely arrived to the Americas via Beringia. However, additional details about the initial colonization of the Americas remain unclear. To investigate the pioneering phase in the Americas we analyzed a total of 623 complete mtDNAs from the Americas and Asia, including 20 new complete mtDNAs(More)
The rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) is an abundant primate species that diverged from the ancestors of Homo sapiens about 25 million years ago. Because they are genetically and physiologically similar to humans, rhesus monkeys are the most widely used nonhuman primate in basic and applied biomedical research. We determined the genome sequence of an(More)
It is well accepted that the Americas were the last continents reached by modern humans, most likely through Beringia. However, the precise time and mode of the colonization of the New World remain hotly disputed issues. Native American populations exhibit almost exclusively five mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups (A-D and X). Haplogroups A-D are also(More)
The three-wave migration hypothesis of Greenberg et al. has permeated the genetic literature on the peopling of the Americas. Greenberg et al. proposed that Na-Dene, Aleut-Eskimo and Amerind are language phyla which represent separate migrations from Asia to the Americas. We show that a unique allele at autosomal microsatellite locus D9S1120 is present in(More)
An 835 base pair (bp) fragment of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was sequenced to characterize genetic variation within and among 1,053 samples comprising five regional populations each of longtail macaques (Macaca fascicularis) and rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), and one sample each of Japanese (M. fuscata) and Taiwanese (M. cyclopis) macaques. The mtDNA(More)
The mtDNA haplogroups of 185 individuals from Native American tribes in Northeast North America were determined. A subset of these individuals was analyzed by sequencing hypervariable segments I and II of the control region. The haplogroup frequency distributions of populations in the Northeast exhibit regional continuity that predates European contact. A(More)
To understand the demographic history of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) and document the extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD) in the genome, we partially resequenced five Encyclopedia of DNA Elements regions in 9 Chinese and 38 captive-born Indian rhesus macaques. Population genetic analyses of the 1467 single-nucleotide polymorphisms discovered suggest(More)
This study examines the mtDNA diversity of the proposed descendants of the multiethnic Hohokam and Anasazi cultural traditions, as well as Uto-Aztecan and Southern-Athapaskan groups, to investigate hypothesized migrations associated with the Southwest region. The mtDNA haplogroups of 117 Native Americans from southwestern North America were determined. The(More)