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The high level of ascorbic acid (AA) in the aqueous humor of many mammals suggests an active transport of AA across the double-layered ciliary epithelium from blood to aqueous humor. We used [14C]AA to study AA uptake in bovine pigmented ciliary epithelial cells in tissue culture. We observed a 40-fold intracellular accumulation of AA, which was dependent(More)
Many recent data indicate that transport of Cl- across the ciliary epithelium plays an important role in aqueous humor formation. We used 36Cl to investigate the pathways for Cl- transport in confluent monolayers of cultured bovine pigmented ciliary epithelial cells. Cl- uptake mainly occurred via a mechanism with typical characteristics of an anion(More)
Cell wall thickening is a common feature among daptomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains. However, the mechanism(s) leading to this phenotype is unknown. We examined a number of cell wall synthesis pathway parameters in an isogenic strain set of S. aureus bloodstream isolates obtained from a patient with recalcitrant endocarditis who failed(More)
Peptidoglycans (PGNs) are immunogenic bacterial surface patterns that trigger immune activation in metazoans and plants. It is generally unknown how complex bacterial structures such as PGNs are perceived by plant pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) and whether host hydrolytic activities facilitate decomposition of bacterial matrices and generation of(More)
Using Radix imperatoriae (the root of masterwort) as an example, we describe an efficient approach for the isolation, identification and evaluation of bioactive plant components on an analytical scale. The extraction of Radix imperatoriae with ethyl acetate was enhanced by the application of ultrasound oscillations. This rhizome extract was applied to three(More)
Multiple mechanisms have been correlated with daptomycin-resistance (DAP-R) in Staphylococcus aureus. However, one common phenotype observed in many DAP-R S. Aureus strains is a thickened cell wall (CW). The first evidence for an impact of CW-linked glycopolymers on this phenotype was recently demonstrated in a single, well-characterized DAP-R(More)
Peptidoglycan (PGN) is ubiquitous in nearly all bacterial species. The PGN sacculus protects the cells against their own internal turgor making PGN one of the most important targets for antibacterial treatment. Within the last sixty years PGN composition has been intensively studied by various methods. The breakthrough was the application of HPLC technology(More)
The representation of whole texts is a major concern of the field known as information retrieval (IR), an impor-taunt aspect of which might more precisely be called 'document retrieval' (DR). The DR situation, with which we will be concerned, is, in general, the following: a. A user, recognizing an information need, presents to an IR mechanism (i.e., a(More)
Intimin and Invasin are prototypical inverse (Type Ve) autotransporters and important virulence factors of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli and Yersinia spp. respectively. In addition to a C-terminal extracellular domain and a β-barrel transmembrane domain, both proteins also contain a short N-terminal periplasmic domain that, in Intimin, includes a lysin(More)
Mutations in the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 2 (NOD2) play an important role in the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease. NOD2 is an intracellular pattern recognition receptor (PRR) that senses bacterial peptidoglycan (PGN) structures, e.g., muramyl dipeptide (MDP). Here we focused on the effect of more-cross-linked, polymeric(More)