Learn More
The genesis of the fourth heart sound (S4) is commonly related to the rapid set in vibration of the left ventricular walls, resulting from the rapid inflow of the blood due to the atrial contraction (Nishimura et al., 1989). S4 can be recorded in normal young subjects as an expression of physiologic atrial dynamics but it is more common in pathologic(More)
In upper middle age healthy subjects the functional cardiac reserve is known to be decreased (Port et al., 1980; Aubert et al., 1994). On the other hand regular physical exercise improves the cardiovascular function (Nishimura et al., 1980). The aim of this study was to establish whether regular physical exercise is associated with a significant change in(More)
  • 1