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A prominent interspecific pattern of sexual size dimorphism (SSD) is Rensch's rule, according to which male body size is more variable or evolutionarily divergent than female body size. Assuming equal growth rates of males and females, SSD would be entirely mediated, and Rensch's rule proximately caused, by sexual differences in development times, or sexual(More)
This paper considers the developing role between VRML and cartography and attempts to add context to it. It does not intend to provide an exhaustive list of geographic VRML applications. Rather it offers examples that illustrate the range of types of cartographic representation that have been developed, and illustrates that whilst VRML could be considered(More)
Within any given clade, male size and female size typically covary, but male size often varies more than female size. This generates a pattern of allometry for sexual size dimorphism (SSD) known as Rensch's rule. I use allometry for SSD among populations of the water strider Aquarius remigis (Hemiptera, Gerridae) to test the hypothesis that Rensch's rule(More)
Male genital morphology in insects and arachnids is characterized by static hypoallometry and low intrapopulational levels of phenotypic variation relative to other male traits. The one-size-fits-all model of genital evolution attributes these patterns to stabilizing sexual selection. This model relies on the assumption that the observed patterns of(More)
This study combines path analysis with quantitative genetics to analyse a key life history trade-off in the cricket, Gryllus firmus. We develop a path model connecting five traits associated with the trade-off between flight capability and reproduction and test this model using phenotypic data and estimates of breeding values (best linear unbiased(More)
Sexual size dimorphism (SSD), the difference in body size between males and females, is common in almost all taxa of animals and is generally assumed to be adaptive. Although sexual selection and fecundity selection alone have often been invoked to explain the evolution of SSD, more recent views indicate that the sexes must experience different lifetime(More)
Fecundity selection is often suggested as the main causal factor underlying the prevalence of female-biased sexual size dimorphism (SSD), but this assumption has not been empirically tested. We selected female Drosophila melanogaster for increased or decreased fecundity (eggs laid over a single 18-h period, between days 5 and 7 posteclosion) for 20(More)
While congruent evidence indicates that sexual selection is the most likely selective force explaining the rapid divergence of male genital morphology in insects, the mechanisms involved in this process remain unclear. In particular, little attention has been paid to precopulatory sexual selection. We examine sexual selection for mating success on male(More)
Mate search plays a central role in hypotheses for the adaptive significance of extreme female-biased sexual size dimorphism (SSD) in animals. Spiders (Araneae) are the only free-living terrestrial taxon where extreme SSD is common. The "gravity hypothesis" states that small body size in males is favoured during mate search in species where males have to(More)