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Sexual dimorphism (SD) is a defining feature of gonochorous animals and dioecious plants, but the evolution of SD from an initially monomorphic genome presents a conundrum. Theory predicts that the evolution of SD will be facilitated if genes with sex-specific fitness effects occur on sex chromosomes. We review this theory and show that it generates three(More)
Sexual size dimorphism (SSD) is often attributed to sexual selection, particularly when males are the larger sex. However, sexual selection favoring large males is common even in taxa where females are the larger sex, and is therefore not a sufficient explanation of patterns of SSD. As part of a more extensive study of the evolution of SSD in water striders(More)
Within any given clade, male size and female size typically covary, but male size often varies more than female size. This generates a pattern of allometry for sexual size dimorphism (SSD) known as Rensch's rule. I use allometry for SSD among populations of the water strider Aquarius remigis (Hemiptera, Gerridae) to test the hypothesis that Rensch's rule(More)
We artificially selected for body size in Drosophila melanogaster to test Lande's quantitative genetic model for the evolution of sexual size dimorphism. Thorax width was used as an estimator of body size. Selection was maintained for 21 generations in both directions on males only, females only, or both sexes simultaneously. The correlated response of(More)
C3H/He mice infected with Borrelia burgdorferi develop severe arthritis and are high antibody responders, while infected C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice develop mild arthritis and less robust humoral responses. Genetic analysis using composite interval mapping (CIM) on reciprocal backcross populations derived from C3H/HeN and C57BL/6N or C3H/HeJ and BALB/cAnN mice(More)
A prominent interspecific pattern of sexual size dimorphism (SSD) is Rensch's rule, according to which male body size is more variable or evolutionarily divergent than female body size. Assuming equal growth rates of males and females, SSD would be entirely mediated, and Rensch's rule proximately caused, by sexual differences in development times, or sexual(More)
This paper considers the developing role between VRML and cartography and attempts to add context to it. It does not intend to provide an exhaustive list of geographic VRML applications. Rather it offers examples that illustrate the range of types of cartographic representation that have been developed, and illustrates that whilst VRML could be considered(More)
Many traits are phenotypically discrete but polygenically determined. Such traits can be understood using the threshold model of quantitative genetics that posits a continuously distributed underlying trait, called the liability, and a threshold of response, individuals above the threshold displaying one morph and individuals below the threshold displaying(More)
Melanism is an important component of insect cuticle and serves numerous functions that enhance fitness. Despite its importance, there is little information on its genetic basis or its phenotypic and genetic correlation with fitness-related traits. Here, we examine the heritability of melanism in the wing dimorphic sand cricket and determine its phenotypic(More)