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OBJECTIVE Experimental brain tumor gene therapy with the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-tk) gene has demonstrated that not only HSV-tk transduced but surrounding non-HSV-tk transduced cells are killed when given ganciclovir. This so-called bystander effect has recently been shown to be dependent on connexin-mediated intercellular communication.(More)
Caudal agenesis is a rare congenital anomaly resulting from an insult to the structures of the caudal eminence. It may be associated with anomalies of other structures derived from the caudal eminence: the hindgut and the urogenital system. Patients are more likely to present first to the pediatric surgeon (for evaluation of gastrointestinal anomalies), the(More)
Our purpose was to explore the utility of cine phase-contrast MRI velocity measurements in determining the functional status of third ventriculostomies, and to correlate the quantitative velocity data with clinical follow-up. We examined six patients with third ventriculostomies and 12 normal subjects by phase-contrast MRI. The maximum craniocaudal to(More)
BACKGROUND Craniotomy bone flaps are replaced for both cosmetic and protective purposes. The purpose of this study was to determine the facility, strength, timing, and cost effectiveness of an alternative system for securing bone flaps. The system consists of titanium discs that clamp the bone flap to the skull edge. METHODS AND RESULTS Ten cadaver(More)
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