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Convergent evolution is a phenomenon whereby similar traits evolved independently in not closely related species, and is often interpreted in functional terms. Spines in mollusk seashells are classically interpreted as having repeatedly evolved as a defense in response to shell-crushing predators. Here we consider the morphogenetic process that shapes these(More)
How mechanical and biological processes are coordinated across cells, tissues, and organs to produce complex traits is a key question in biology. Cardamine hirsuta, a relative of Arabidopsis thaliana, uses an explosive mechanism to disperse its seeds. We show that this trait evolved through morphomechanical innovations at different spatial scales. At the(More)
The idea that physical processes involved in biological development underlie morphogenetic rules and channel morphological evolution has been central to the rise of evolutionary developmental biology. Here, we explore this idea in the context of seashell morphogenesis. We show that a morphomechanical model predicts the effects of variations in shell shape(More)
We describe experimental observations of fully developed, large-amplitude bars under the action of a shearing fluid. The experiments were performed in an annular tank filled with water and sheared above by a steady motor source. The same steady shearing flow can produce a variety of different erodible bed manifestations: advective or precessive bars, which(More)
Mathematical models of electrostatic actuation have been developed since the 1960's, beginning with the work of G.I. Taylor, and are of great utility in a number of engineering systems. They are of particular use in the field of micro-and nanoelectromechanical systems, where models have typically dealt with planar geometries. Here, we extend the theory of(More)
We present a detailed asymptotic analysis of the point indentation of an unpressurized, spherical elastic shell. Previous analyses of this classic problem have assumed that for sufficiently large indentation depths, such a shell deforms by 'mirror buckling'-a portion of the shell inverts to become a spherical cap with equal but opposite curvature to the(More)
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