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Glycogen synthase kinase 3beta (GSK3beta) is involved in metabolism, neurodegeneration, and cancer. Inhibition of GSK3beta activity is the primary mechanism that regulates this widely expressed active kinase. Although the protein kinase Akt inhibits GSK3beta by phosphorylation at the N terminus, preventing Akt-mediated phosphorylation does not affect the(More)
Extrahepatic glucose release was evaluated during the anhepatic phase of liver transplantation in 14 recipients for localized hepatocarcinoma with mild or absent cirrhosis, who received a bolus of [6,6-2H2]glucose and l-[3-13C]alanine or l-[1,2-13C2]glutamine to measure glucose kinetics and to prove whether gluconeogenesis occurred from alanine and(More)
Leucine catabolism is regulated by either of the first two degradative steps: (reversible) transamination to the keto acid or subsequent decarboxylation. A method is described to measure rates of leucine transamination, reamination, and keto acid oxidation. The method is applied directly to humans by infusing the nonradioactive tracer, L-[15N,1-13C]leucine.(More)
Chronic heart failure is characterized by changes in skeletal muscle that contribute to physical disability. Most studies to date have investigated defects in skeletal muscle oxidative capacity. In contrast, less is known about how heart failure affects myofibrillar protein metabolism. Thus we examined the effect of heart failure on skeletal muscle(More)
The response of glutamine and glutamate kinetics were studied in five healthy young adult men on diets containing deficient (0.1), adequate (0.8), or surfeit (2.2 g.kg-1.d-1) amounts of protein. Glutamate, glutamine, and phenylalanine kinetics were measured in the postabsorptive state at the end of each diet period. Urinary urea and ammonia excretion(More)
The identification and quantification of specific phosphorylation sites within a protein by mass spectrometry has proved challenging when measured from peptides after protein digestion because each peptide has a unique ionization efficiency that alters with modification, such as phosphorylation, and because phosphorylation can alter cleavage by trypsin,(More)
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