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Glycogen synthase kinase 3beta (GSK3beta) is involved in metabolism, neurodegeneration, and cancer. Inhibition of GSK3beta activity is the primary mechanism that regulates this widely expressed active kinase. Although the protein kinase Akt inhibits GSK3beta by phosphorylation at the N terminus, preventing Akt-mediated phosphorylation does not affect the(More)
Extrahepatic glucose release was evaluated during the anhepatic phase of liver transplantation in 14 recipients for localized hepatocarcinoma with mild or absent cirrhosis, who received a bolus of [6,6-2H2]glucose and l-[3-13C]alanine or l-[1,2-13C2]glutamine to measure glucose kinetics and to prove whether gluconeogenesis occurred from alanine and(More)
Aging is associated with decreased skeletal muscle mass and function. These changes are thought to derive, in part, from a reduction in skeletal muscle protein synthesis. Although some studies have shown reduced postabsorptive muscle protein synthesis with age in humans, recent studies have failed to find an age effect. In addition to this disparity, few(More)
Patients with major injury or illness develop protein wasting, hypermetabolism, and hyperglycemia with increased glucose flux. To assess the role of elevated counterregulatory hormones in this response, we simultaneously infused cortisol (6 mg/m2 per h), glucagon (4 ng/kg per min), epinephrine (0.6 microgram/m2 per min), and norepinephrine (0.8(More)
Leucine catabolism is regulated by either of the first two degradative steps: (reversible) transamination to the keto acid or subsequent decarboxylation. A method is described to measure rates of leucine transamination, reamination, and keto acid oxidation. The method is applied directly to humans by infusing the nonradioactive tracer, L-[15N,1-13C]leucine.(More)
Methionine metabolism forms homocysteine via transmethylation. Homocysteine is either 1) condensed to form cystathionine, which is cleaved to form cysteine, or 2) remethylated back to methionine. Measuring this cycle with the use of isotopically labeled methionine tracers is problematic, because the tracer is infused into and measured from blood, whereas(More)
Chronic heart failure is characterized by changes in skeletal muscle that contribute to physical disability. Most studies to date have investigated defects in skeletal muscle oxidative capacity. In contrast, less is known about how heart failure affects myofibrillar protein metabolism. Thus we examined the effect of heart failure on skeletal muscle(More)
The response of glutamine and glutamate kinetics were studied in five healthy young adult men on diets containing deficient (0.1), adequate (0.8), or surfeit (2.2 g.kg-1.d-1) amounts of protein. Glutamate, glutamine, and phenylalanine kinetics were measured in the postabsorptive state at the end of each diet period. Urinary urea and ammonia excretion(More)
Determinants of daily energy needs and physical activity are unknown in free-living elderly. This study examined determinants of daily total energy expenditure (TEE) and free-living physical activity in older women (n = 51; age = 67 +/- 6 yr) and men (n = 48; age = 70 +/- 7 yr) by using doubly labeled water and indirect calorimetry. Using(More)