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In Friston et al. ((2002) Neuroimage 16: 465-483) we introduced empirical Bayes as a potentially useful way to estimate and make inferences about effects in hierarchical models. In this paper we present a series of models that exemplify the diversity of problems that can be addressed within this framework. In hierarchical linear observation models, both(More)
Conventional imaging techniques have provided high-resolution imaging either in the spatial domain or in the temporal domain. Optical imaging utilizing voltage-sensitive dyes has long had the unrealized potential to achieve high resolution in both domains simultaneously, providing subcolumnar spatial detail with millisecond precision. Here, we present a(More)
The human brain contains specialized circuits for observing and understanding actions. Previous studies have not distinguished whether this "mirror system" uses specialized motor representations or general processes of visual inference and knowledge to understand observed actions. We report the first neuroimaging study to distinguish between these(More)
The contribution of anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) to human cognition remains unclear. The rostral (rACC) and dorsal (dACC) ACC cortex are implicated in tasks that require increased response control due to emotional and cognitive interference, respectively. However, both rACC and dACC are activated by conditions that induce changes in visceral arousal,(More)
The aim of this note is to revisit the analysis of conjunctions in imaging data. We review some conceptual issues that have emerged from recent discussion (Nichols, T., Brett, M., Andersson, J., Wager, T., Poline, J.-B., 2004. Valid Conjunction Inference with the Minimum Statistic.) and reformulate the conjunction of null hypotheses as a conjunction of k or(More)
The human intraparietal sulcus (IPS) is implicated in processing symbolic number information and possibly in nonsymbolic number information. Specific IPS activity for discrete quantities (numerosities) as compared with continuous, analogue quantity has not been demonstrated. Here we use a stimulus-driven paradigm to distinguish automatic estimation of "how(More)
We employed a parametric version of the comparison Stroop paradigm to investigate the processing of numerical magnitude and physical size under task-relevant and -irrelevant conditions to investigate two theoretical issues: (1) What is the neural fate of task-irrelevant information? (2) What is the neural basis of the resolution of the conflict between(More)
In neuroimaging, data are often modeled using general linear models. Here, we focus on GLMs with error covariances which are modeled as a linear combination of multiple variance/covariance components. Each of these components is weighted by one variance parameter. In many analyses variance parameters are estimated using restricted maximum likelihood (ReML).(More)
Optical topography (OT) relies on the near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) technique to provide noninvasively a spatial map of functional brain activity. OT has advantages over conventional fMRI in terms of its simple approach to measuring the hemodynamic response, its ability to distinguish between changes in oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin and the range of human(More)