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Today, the concept of brain connectivity plays a central role in the neuroscience. While functional connectivity is defined as the temporal coherence between the activities of different brain areas, the effective connectivity is defined as the simplest brain circuit that would produce the same temporal relationship as observed experimentally between(More)
It has long been recognized that covariate adjustment can increase precision in randomized experiments, even when it is not strictly necessary. Adjustment is often straightforward when a discrete covariate partitions the sample into a handful of strata, but becomes more involved with even a single continuous covariate such as age. As randomized experiments(More)
Consider the standard multiple testing problem where many hypotheses are to be tested, each hypothesis is associated with a test statistic, and large test statistics provide evidence against the null hypotheses. One proposal to provide probabilistic control of Type-I errors is the use of procedures ensuring that the expected number of false positives does(More)
Clinical trials that compare strategies to optimize antibiotic use are of critical importance but are limited by competing risks that distort outcome interpretation, complexities of noninferiority trials, large sample sizes, and inadequate evaluation of benefits and harms at the patient level. The Antibacterial Resistance Leadership Group strives to(More)
A central problem in public health studies is how to make inferences about the causal effects of treatments or agents. In this article we review an approach to making such inferences via potential outcomes. In this approach, the causal effect is defined as a comparison of results from two or more alternative treatments, with only one of the results actually(More)
In this prospective study of 45 patients, we tested the hypothesis that markedly elevated levels of plasma von Willebrand antigen (vWf-Ag) a marker of endothelial cell injury, might predict the development of acute lung injury in patients with nonpulmonary sepsis syndrome. Acute lung injury was quantified on a four-point scoring system. At the time of entry(More)
Bismuth subsalicylate preparations are over-the-counter products for gastrointestinal complaints. Bismuth toxicity causes delirium, psychosis, ataxia, myoclonus, and seizures and is reversible over several weeks or months, when bismuth intake is stopped. We report a 54-year-old man with a 6-week history of progressive confusion and memory difficulty and a(More)
BACKGROUND Powassan virus (POWV) is a rarely diagnosed cause of encephalitis in the United States. In the Northeast, it is transmitted by Ixodes scapularis, the same vector that transmits Lyme disease. The prevalence of POWV among animal hosts and vectors has been increasing. We present 8 cases of POWV encephalitis from Massachusetts and New Hampshire in(More)
We discuss using clinical trial data to construct and evaluate rules that use baseline covariates to assign different treatments to different patients. Given such a candidate personalization rule, we first note that its performance can often be evaluated without actually applying the rule to subjects, and a class of estimators is characterized from a(More)
This study aims to recover transient, trial-varying evoked potentials (EPs), in particular the movement-related potentials (MRPs), embedded within the background cerebral activity at very low signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs). A new adaptive neuro-fuzzy technique will attempt to estimate movement-related potentials within multi-channel EEG recordings, enabling(More)