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A description of different levels of the normal adult human skeletal muscular system is given as derived by computed tomography (CT). A standard program is presented by which a maximum number of muscles which are affected by neuromuscular diseases can be examined with a minimum of radiation. Twenty-four patients of different ages, 12 males and 12 females,(More)
A standard program of computed tomographic (CT) scanning of the human skeletal muscular system was developed. Scans were obtained on five levels: the neck, the shoulder girdle, the pelvic girdle, the thigh, and the lower leg. The normal size and density of several muscles were determined. CT scans were also obtained in patients with various neuromuscular(More)
Chassis control systems have evolved dramatically over the past two decades and their impacts on vehicle dynamics can be usefully separated into the three directions, i.e. lateral, longitudinal and vertical directions. Accordingly, the state survey of chassis control systems can be reviewed in following sub-system areas, i.e. steering, driveline/braking and(More)
In this paper, a full-vehicle active suspension system is designed to simultaneously improve vehicle ride comfort and steady-state handling performance. First, a linear suspension model of a vehicle and a nonlinear handling model are described. Next, the link between the suspension model and vehicle steady-state handling characteristics is analysed. Then,(More)
The current level of interest in Electric Vehicles (EVs) could hardly be overstated as manufacturers and governments around the world appear to have increased interest at a staggering rate. The resurgence of current interest in the early part of the 21st century has been driven by both political and technological developments, namely a requirement to(More)
The control problem for a hybrid vehicle powertrain is commonly tackled as an optimal control problem, although this is often used in a general sense as opposed to a strict mathematical definition. The problem may be characterised in many ways depending on the performance objective, the hybrid vehicle model considered, the constraints imposed and the(More)