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AIMS Chronic heart failure (CHF) causes inspiratory (diaphragm) muscle weakness and fatigue that contributes to dyspnoea and limited physical capacity in patients. However, the mechanisms that lead to diaphragm dysfunction in CHF remain poorly understood. Cytokines and angiotensin II are elevated in CHF and stimulate the activity of the enzyme(More)
BACKGROUND Obesity may alter vascular endothelial cell protein expression (VECPE) of molecules that influence susceptibility to atherosclerosis. METHODS AND RESULTS Quantitative immunofluorescence was performed on vascular endothelial cells collected from 108 men and women free of clinical disease who varied widely in adiposity (body mass index 18.4 to(More)
BACKGROUND Short-term and tonic regulation of arterial blood pressure (BP) differ in premenopausal women and men of similar age. The autonomic nervous system (ANS) plays a critical role in BP regulation. METHODS AND RESULTS To test the hypothesis that women have lower tonic ANS support of BP (reduction in intra-arterial BP during acute ganglionic blockade(More)
BACKGROUND Baroreflex buffering is an important mechanism in arterial blood pressure control. The effect of healthy (physiological) aging on tonic baroreflex buffering in humans is unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS Baroreflex buffering was determined in 27 young (aged 25+/-1 years) and 16 older (aged 65+/-1 years) healthy normotensive men by measuring the(More)
Diaphragm muscle weakness in chronic heart failure (CHF) is caused by elevated oxidants and exacerbates breathing abnormalities, exercise intolerance, and dyspnea. However, the specific source of oxidants that cause diaphragm weakness is unknown. We examined whether mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) cause diaphragm weakness in CHF by testing the(More)
Reviewers The Publications Committee of the American Physiological Society gratefully acknowledges the services of the following reviewers who assisted the Editorial Board in the reviews of manuscripts. (invited only) have specific instructions that you should review if you are submitting to them. The American Physiological Society (APS) Journals seek(More)
The sympathetic nervous system contributes to resting metabolic rate (RMR) via beta-adrenergic receptor (beta-AR) stimulation of energy metabolism. RMR and beta-AR support of RMR are greater in habitually exercising compared with sedentary older adults possibly due to greater energy flux (magnitude of energy intake and energy expenditure during energy(More)
Aortic pulse wave velocity (AoPWV) and augmentation index (AIx) are commonly used measures of large elastic artery stiffness and wave reflection, respectively. Recently, a new cuff-based SphygmoCor device (Xcel) has been developed to measure both AoPWV and AIx. We sought to examine the following: (1) the validity of Xcel compared with the well-validated(More)
Background—The prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is partly attributable to an inactive and/or overweight population. However, the independent association of body fatness and aerobic fitness with CVD risk factors is uncertain. We sought to determine whether fatness or fitness better predicted traditional CVD risk factors in men with broad fatness,(More)
Although doxorubicin (DOX) is a highly effective anti-tumour agent used to treat a variety of cancers, DOX administration is associated with significant side effects, including myopathy of both cardiac and skeletal muscles. The mechanisms responsible for DOX-mediated myopathy remain a topic of debate. We tested the hypothesis that both increased(More)