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OBJECTIVES The goal of this study was to investigate the dose-dependent effects of active cigarette smoking on endothelial nitric oxide (NO) and endothelin-1 (ET-1) biosynthesis. BACKGROUND Limited studies have suggested that active cigarette smoking may be associated with a dose-dependent reduction of endothelium-dependent vasodilation (EDV). The(More)
BACKGROUND The mechanisms involved in the dysfunction of both endothelium-dependent vasodilatation (EDV) and NO biosynthesis related to smoking are unclear. In this study, EDV was assessed in healthy smokers and nonsmokers in vivo and, using serum from the same individuals, was related to the NO biosynthetic pathway in vitro. METHODS AND RESULTS(More)
UNLABELLED Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is the most common cause of acute liver failure in the United-States. The aim of the study was to describe serum immune profiles associated with acute DILI, to investigate whether there are profiles associated with clinical features or types of DILI and/or with prognosis, and to assess temporal changes in levels.(More)
Exposure to endotoxin produces a state of macrophage hyporesponsiveness on subsequent stimulation. Monocytes in patients with septic shock demonstrate a similar hyporesponsiveness to endotoxin. The purpose of this study was to examine whether this state of hyporesponsiveness extends to other inflammatory stimuli and the relationship of this state to cell(More)
We allocated 35 male Sprague-Dawley rats into 7 groups and anesthetized each by using one of the following regimens: ketamine 50 mg+xylaxine 5 mg; ketamine 75 mg+xylazine 5 mg; pentobarbital 45 mg; and Telazol 30, 40, 50, and 60 mg/kg; supplemental doses were used as required. Respiratory rate, heart rate, mean arterial pressure, cardiac index, and stroke(More)
BACKGROUND Data about the effects of smoking on thrombo-hemostatic factors (tissue factor [TF] and tissue factor pathway inhibitor [TFPI-1]) are limited and on fibrinolytic factors (tissue plasminogen activator [t-PA] and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 [PAI-1]) are debatable. The present study investigated the smoking-related, endothelial cell(More)
Anti-inflammatory substances are released during septic shock that modulate monocyte function. Decreased monocyte responsiveness to bacterial toxins and decreased expression of human-leukocyte-associated antigen-DR (HLA-DR) have been reported during septic shock and critical illness. Impaired antigen presentation has been inferred from these observations(More)
OBJECTIVES The purpose of this study was to examine the pattern of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and interleukin (IL)-10 release in endotoxin-stimulated septic monocytes and to determine the role of IL-10 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta in monocyte hyporesponsiveness during septic shock. DESIGN Monocytes isolated from ten healthy controls(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine the mechanisms contributing to decreased microvascular blood flow in cardiogenic shock by comparing patients with cardiogenic shock with critically ill controls and with patients with septic shock. DESIGN Prospective, consecutive entry of patients meeting the criteria for septic shock, cardiogenic shock, and critical illness without(More)
Cryptococcosis is a significant infection with a high mortality in solid-organ transplant recipients. Nonetheless, the pathogenesis of this disease is poorly understood. It has been hypothesized that cryptococcosis may result from either primary infection or reactivation of a latent infection. Sera were obtained from transplant recipients prior to(More)