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The primary endosymbiotic origin of the plastid in eukaryotes more than 1 billion years ago led to the evolution of algae and plants. We analyzed draft genome and transcriptome data from the basally diverging alga Cyanophora paradoxa and provide evidence for a single origin of the primary plastid in the eukaryote supergroup Plantae. C. paradoxa retains(More)
The sea slug Elysia chlorotica offers a unique opportunity to study the evolution of a novel function (photosynthesis) in a complex multicellular host. Elysia chlorotica harvests plastids (absent of nuclei) from its heterokont algal prey, Vaucheria litorea. The "stolen" plastids are maintained for several months in cells of the digestive tract and are(More)
Whole-genome shotgun sequence data from three individual cells isolated from seawater, followed by analysis of ribosomal DNA, indicated that the cells represented three divergent clades of picobiliphytes. In contrast with the recent description of this phylum, we found no evidence of plastid DNA nor of nuclear-encoded plastid-targeted proteins, which(More)
The limited knowledge we have about red algal genomes comes from the highly specialized extremophiles, Cyanidiophyceae. Here, we describe the first genome sequence from a mesophilic, unicellular red alga, Porphyridium purpureum. The 8,355 predicted genes in P. purpureum, hundreds of which are likely to be implicated in a history of horizontal gene transfer,(More)
The tribe Aedini (Family Culicidae) contains approximately one-quarter of the known species of mosquitoes, including vectors of deadly or debilitating disease agents. This tribe contains the genus Aedes, which is one of the three most familiar genera of mosquitoes. During the past decade, Aedini has been the focus of a series of extensive morphology-based(More)
Structural Health Management (SHM) will be of critical importance to provide the safety, reliability and affordability necessary for the future long duration space missions described in America's Vision for Space Exploration. Long duration missions to the Moon, Mars and beyond cannot be accomplished with the current paradigm of periodic, ground based(More)
through HGT from eubacteria. The unlinked nature of these genes is likely explained by multiple gene transfers that resulted in assembly of the pathway in G. phlegrea. Our study demonstrates that genome reduction, a common outcome in eukaryotes for adaptation to a specialized niche, can be ameliorated by the gain of once lost, or novel functions through(More)
Two cases of primary plastid endosymbiosis are known. The first occurred ca. 1.6 billion years ago and putatively gave rise to the canonical plastid in algae and plants. The second is restricted to a genus of rhizarian amoebae that includes Paulinella chromatophora. Photosynthetic Paulinella species gained their plastid from an α-cyanobacterial source and(More)
Improving feedstock is critical to facilitate the commercial utilization of algae, in particular in open pond systems where, due to the presence of competitors and pests, high algal growth rates and stress tolerance are beneficial. Here we raised laboratory cultures of the model alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii under serial dilution to explore the potential(More)