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Cyclosporine is an immunomodulatory drug used to treat an increasing spectrum of diseases in dogs. Cyclosporine is a calcineurin inhibitor, ultimately exerting its inhibitory effects on T-lymphocytes by decreasing production of cytokines, such as interleukin-2. Although, in the United States, oral cyclosporine is approved in dogs only for treatment of(More)
BACKGROUND Few medications are available for parental administration to animals with seizures. Rectal administration of medications is often used if the animal cannot be administered oral medications. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES To determine the pharmacokinetic differences in zonisamide when administered rectally in either of 2 vehicles and p.o. to dogs. (More)
Respiratory tract disease can be associated with primary or secondary bacterial infections in dogs and cats and is a common reason for use and potential misuse, improper use, and overuse of antimicrobials. There is a lack of comprehensive treatment guidelines such as those that are available for human medicine. Accordingly, the International Society for(More)
BACKGROUND Levetiracetam is an anticonvulsant used for control of canine epilepsy. An extended release preparation should improve dosing convenience. OBJECTIVES To determine the disposition of extended release levetiracetam in normal dogs after single dosing. ANIMALS Pharmacokinetic study: 16 healthy, adult dogs. METHODS Using a partially randomized(More)
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