D. Blackwood

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Exfiltration from sewers is widespread and emerging legislation may require water service providers to identify, and rectify, its sources in sewerage systems. This paper describes exfiltration test apparatus and a series of experiments undertaken using sewage to gain a better understanding of the influence of sewage solids and sediments on leakage rates. An(More)
The Dunfermline Eastern Expansion (DEX) is a 350 ha mixed development which commenced in 1996. Downstream water quality and flooding issues necessitated a holistic approach to drainage planning and the site has become a European showcase for the application of Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems (SUDS). However, there is minimal data available regarding the(More)
Phosphorus is an element essential for life. Concerns regarding long-term security of supply and issues related to eutrophication of surface waters once released into the aquatic environment have led governments to consider and apply measures for reducing the use and discharge of phosphorus. Examples of source control include legislation to reduce(More)
Sewer rig studies demonstrate a rapid exponential decline in exfiltration rates from gaps and joints to establish an ultimate steady-state equilibrium varying between 10 – 10 l s, with minimum average daily rates per standardised leak area and sewer length varying between 0.02 – 9.0 l dcm and 0.0002 – 2.0 l s km respectively. These loss rates are much(More)
The use of games-based visualisation technology allows for the development of sophisticated interactive 3D decision support tools. Components of these tools are the various real-time rendering methods that are implemented to facilitate the interactive 3D aspect of the visualisations. Modern graphics hardware allows for the implementation of both simple and(More)
Sewer rig studies demonstrate a rapid exponential decline in exfiltration rates from gaps and joints to establish an ultimate steady-state equilibrium varying between 10(-3)-10(-6) l s(-1), with minimum average daily rates per standardised leak area and sewer length varying between 0.02-9.0 l d(-1)cm(-2) and 0.0002-2.0 l s(-1) km(-1) respectively. These(More)
Large existing sewers are considerable assets which wastewater utilities will require to operate for the foreseeable future to maintain health and the quality of life in cities. Despite their existence for more than a century there is surprisingly little guidance available to manage these systems to minimise problems associated with in-sewer solids. A joint(More)
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