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Intercellular adhesion molecule 1 and the low-density lipoprotein receptor are used for cell entry by major and minor receptor group human rhinoviruses (HRVs), respectively. Whereas minor-group viruses, exemplified by HRV2, transfer their genomic RNA to the cytoplasm through a pore in the endosomal membrane (E. Prchla, C. Plank, E. Wagner, D. Blaas, and R.(More)
We have previously isolated mutants of the major-group human rhinovirus type 89 that grow in cells deficient in intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), the receptor used by the wild-type virus for cell entry [A. Reischl, M. Reithmayer, G. Winsauer, R. Moser, I. Goesler, and D. Blaas., J. Virol. 75:9312-9319, 2001]. We now demonstrate that one of these(More)
Using several approaches, we investigated the importance of clathrin-mediated endocytosis in the uptake of human rhinovirus serotype 2 (HRV2). By means of confocal immunofluorescence microscopy, we show that K(+) depletion strongly reduces HRV2 internalization. Viral uptake was also substantially reduced by extraction of cholesterol from the plasma membrane(More)
Human rhinovirus type 2 (HRV2) is internalized by members of the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor (LDLR) family. It then progresses into late endosomes, where it undergoes conversion from D- to C-antigenicity at pH < 5.6. Upon uncoating, the viral RNA is transferred into the cytoplasm across the endsosomal membrane. However, C-antigenic particles fail(More)
Unambiguous assignment of restriction enzyme patterns to six individual serotypes of human rhinovirus was accomplished after amplification of a 380 bp DNA fragment derived from the 5' non-coding region. This was possible even though serotypes 1A and 1B and serotypes 2 and 49 differed only at 10 and 15 positions respectively. The method utilizes the(More)
Bafilomycin A1 (baf), a specific inhibitor of vacuolar proton ATPases, is commonly employed to demonstrate the requirement of low endosomal pH for viral uncoating. However, in certain cell types baf also affects the transport of endocytosed material from early to late endocytic compartments. To characterize the endocytic route in HeLa cells that are(More)
Picornaviral proteinases are responsible for maturation cleavages of the viral polyprotein, but also catalyze the degradation of cellular targets. Using graphical visualization techniques and neural network algorithms, we have investigated the sequence specificity of the two proteinases 2Apro and 3Cpro. The cleavage of VP0 (giving rise to VP2 and VP4),(More)
Endosomal penetration by nonenveloped viruses might be accomplished by either local breakdown of the endosomal membrane (e.g., adenovirus) or formation of a membrane-spanning pore by capsid proteins. Uncoating of the nonenveloped virus human rhinovirus serotype 2 (HRV2) has been shown to occur from late endosomes and to be entirely dependent on the acidic(More)
Minor group human rhinoviruses (exemplified by human rhinovirus serotype 2 (HRV2)) use members of the low density lipoprotein receptor family for cell entry; all these receptors possess clathrin-coated pit localization signals. Viral infection should thus be inhibited under conditions of impaired clathrin-mediated endocytosis. However, Madshus et al.(More)
Upon attachment to their respective receptor, human rhinoviruses (HRVs) are internalized into the host cell via different pathways but undergo similar structural changes. This ultimately results in the delivery of the viral RNA into the cytoplasm for replication. To improve our understanding of the conformational modifications associated with the release of(More)