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Intercellular adhesion molecule 1 and the low-density lipoprotein receptor are used for cell entry by major and minor receptor group human rhinoviruses (HRVs), respectively. Whereas minor-group viruses, exemplified by HRV2, transfer their genomic RNA to the cytoplasm through a pore in the endosomal membrane (E. Prchla, C. Plank, E. Wagner, D. Blaas, and R.(More)
A protein binding to a minor-group human rhinovirus (HRV2) was purified from HeLa cell culture supernatant. The amino acid sequences of tryptic peptides showed identity with the human low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor (LDLR). LDL and HRV2 mutually competed for binding sites on human fibroblasts. Cells down-regulated for LDLR expression yielded much(More)
The internalization pathway and mechanism of uncoating of human rhinovirus serotype 2 (HRV2), a minor-group human rhinovirus, were investigated. Kinetic analysis revealed a late endosomal compartment as the site of capsid modification from D to C antigenicity. The conformational change as well as the infection was prevented by the specific V-ATPase(More)
Human rhinovirus serotype 2 (HRV2) belongs to the minor group of HRVs that bind to members of the LDL-receptor family including the very low density lipoprotein (VLDL)-receptor (VLDL-R). We have determined the structures of the complex between HRV2 and soluble fragments of the VLDL-R to 15 A resolution by cryo-electron microscopy. The receptor fragments,(More)
Human rhinoviruses are classified into a major and a minor group based on their binding to ICAM-1 or to members of the LDL-receptor family, respectively. They can also be divided into groups A and B, according to their sensitivity towards a panel of antiviral compounds. The structure of human rhinovirus 2 (HRV2), which uses the LDL receptor for cell(More)
Bafilomycin A1 (baf), a specific inhibitor of vacuolar proton ATPases, is commonly employed to demonstrate the requirement of low endosomal pH for viral uncoating. However, in certain cell types baf also affects the transport of endocytosed material from early to late endocytic compartments. To characterize the endocytic route in HeLa cells that are(More)
Picornaviral proteinases are responsible for maturation cleavages of the viral polyprotein, but also catalyze the degradation of cellular targets. Using graphical visualization techniques and neural network algorithms, we have investigated the sequence specificity of the two proteinases 2Apro and 3Cpro. The cleavage of VP0 (giving rise to VP2 and VP4),(More)
Mutants of human rhinovirus serotype 14 (HRV14) with increased resistance to treatment at low pH were obtained by repeated cycles of exposure to pH 4.5 and propagation in HeLa cells. Whereas wild-type virus lost more than 5 logs of infectivity upon incubation at pH 4.3, the three isolates examined were essentially unaffected. Conformational change of the(More)
Human rhinoviruses (HRVs) are a major cause of the common cold. The more than one hundred serotypes, divided into species HRV-A and HRV-B, either bind intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (major group viruses) or members of the low-density lipoprotein receptor (minor group viruses) for cell entry. Some major group HRVs can also access the host cell via heparan(More)
Human rhinovirus type 2 (HRV2) is internalized by members of the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor (LDLR) family. It then progresses into late endosomes, where it undergoes conversion from D- to C-antigenicity at pH < 5.6. Upon uncoating, the viral RNA is transferred into the cytoplasm across the endsosomal membrane. However, C-antigenic particles fail(More)