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Unambiguous assignment of restriction enzyme patterns to six individual serotypes of human rhinovirus was accomplished after amplification of a 380 bp DNA fragment derived from the 5' non-coding region. This was possible even though serotypes 1A and 1B and serotypes 2 and 49 differed only at 10 and 15 positions respectively. The method utilizes the(More)
Bafilomycin A1 (baf), a specific inhibitor of vacuolar proton ATPases, is commonly employed to demonstrate the requirement of low endosomal pH for viral uncoating. However, in certain cell types baf also affects the transport of endocytosed material from early to late endocytic compartments. To characterize the endocytic route in HeLa cells that are(More)
Endosomal penetration by nonenveloped viruses might be accomplished by either local breakdown of the endosomal membrane (e.g., adenovirus) or formation of a membrane-spanning pore by capsid proteins. Uncoating of the nonenveloped virus human rhinovirus serotype 2 (HRV2) has been shown to occur from late endosomes and to be entirely dependent on the acidic(More)
The effect of virus uncoating on endosome integrity during the early steps in viral infection was investigated. Using fluid-phase uptake of 10- and 70-kDa dextrans labeled with a pH-dependent fluorophore (fluorescein isothiocyanate [FITC]) and a pH-independent fluorophore (cyanine 5 [Cy5]), we determined the pHs of labeled compartments in intact HeLa cells(More)
Upon attachment to their respective receptor, human rhinoviruses (HRVs) are internalized into the host cell via different pathways but undergo similar structural changes. This ultimately results in the delivery of the viral RNA into the cytoplasm for replication. To improve our understanding of the conformational modifications associated with the release of(More)
Four WIN compounds with anti-picornavirus activities were tested for their ability to stabilize human rhinovirus serotype 2 (HRV-2) against low pH-induced conformational changes in vitro, as determined by specific immunoprecipitation. These results were compared to the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) as measured in a plaque reduction assay. A direct(More)