Learn More
OBJECTIVE Reducing viral load, highly active antiretroviral therapy has the potential to limit onwards transmission of HIV-1 and thus help contain epidemic spread. However, increases in risk behaviour and resurgent epidemics have been widely reported post-highly active antiretroviral therapy. The aim of this study was to quantify the impact that highly(More)
In this article, we introduce the Gypsy Database (GyDB) of mobile genetic elements, an in-progress database devoted to the non-redundant analysis and evolutionary-based classification of mobile genetic elements. In this first version, we contemplate eukaryotic Ty3/Gypsy and Retroviridae long terminal repeats (LTR) retroelements. Phylogenetic analyses based(More)
BACKGROUND There has been increasing concern about a resurgent epidemic of HIV-1 amongst men having sex with men in the Netherlands, which has parallels with similar epidemics now occurring in many other countries. METHODS A transmission model applicable to HIV-1 epidemics, including the use of antiretroviral therapy, is presented in a set of ordinary(More)
Infectious gastroenteritis causes a considerable burden of disease worldwide. Costs due to gastroenteritis are dominated by the hospitalized cases. Effective control of gastroenteritis should be targeted at the diseases with the highest burden and costs. For that, an accurate understanding of the relative importance of the different bacterial, viral, and(More)
BACKGROUND HIV-1 RNA plasma concentration at viral set-point is associated not only with disease outcome but also with the transmission dynamics of HIV-1. We investigated whether plasma HIV-1 RNA concentration and CD4 cell count at viral set-point have changed over time in the HIV epidemic in the Netherlands. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS We selected 906(More)
INTRODUCTION Studies suggest that the HIV-1 epidemic in the Netherlands may have become more virulent, leading to faster disease progression if untreated. Analysis of CD4 cell count decline before antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation, a surrogate marker for disease progression, may be hampered by informative censoring as ART initiation is more likely(More)
BACKGROUND Estimates of the size of the undiagnosed HIV-infected population are important to understand the HIV epidemic and to plan interventions, including "test-and-treat" strategies. METHODS We developed a multi-state back-calculation model to estimate HIV incidence, time between infection and diagnosis, and the undiagnosed population by CD4 count(More)
The important role of Hox genes in determining the regionalization of the body plan of the vertebrates makes them invaluable candidates for evolutionary analyses regarding functional and morphological innovation. Gene duplication and gene loss led to a variable number of Hox genes in different vertebrate lineages. The evolutionary forces determining the(More)
Whether temporary antiretroviral treatment during primary HIV infection (PHI) lowers the viral set point or affects the subsequent CD4 count decline remains unclear. The objectives of this study were to analyze the clinical, viral, and immunological effects of temporary early HAART during PHI. This is a cohort study of patients with laboratory evidence of(More)
OBJECTIVE To obtain insight in the HIV-1 transmission networks among men having sex with men (MSM) in the Netherlands. DESIGN A phylogenetic tree was constructed from polymerase sequences isolated from 2877 HIV-1 subtype B-infected patients monitored as part of the AIDS Therapy Evaluation in the Netherlands (ATHENA) nationwide observational cohort. (More)