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We describe the Phase II HapMap, which characterizes over 3.1 million human single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) genotyped in 270 individuals from four geographically diverse populations and includes 25-35% of common SNP variation in the populations surveyed. The map is estimated to capture untyped common variation with an average maximum r2 of between(More)
With the advent of dense maps of human genetic variation, it is now possible to detect positive natural selection across the human genome. Here we report an analysis of over 3 million polymorphisms from the International HapMap Project Phase 2 (HapMap2). We used 'long-range haplotype' methods, which were developed to identify alleles segregating in a(More)
Multiple host-specific molecular markers were used to detect the sources of faecal pollution in a mixed land use non-sewered catchment in Southeast Queensland, Australia. These markers included human-specific Bacteroides (HF183 and HF134), cattle-specific Bacteroides (CF128), dog-specific Bacteroides (BacCan) and human-specific enterococci surface protein(More)
Library-dependent (LD) (biochemical fingerprinting of Escherichia coli and enterococci) and library-independent (LI) (PCR detection of human-specific biomarkers) methods were used to detect human faecal pollution in three non-sewered catchments. In all, 550 E. coli isolates and 700 enterococci isolates were biochemically fingerprinted from 18 water samples(More)
Human-specific Bacteroides HF183 (HS-HF183), human-specific Enterococci faecium esp (HS-esp), human-specific adenoviruses (HS-AVs) and human-specific polyomaviruses (HS-PVs) assays were evaluated in freshwater, seawater and distilled water to detect fresh sewage. The sewage spiked water samples were also tested for the concentrations of traditional fecal(More)
The execution time or estimated execution time of actor. UBS Unbounded buffer synchronization. A synchronization protocol that must be used for feedforward edges of the synchronization graph. This protocol requires four synchronization accesses per iteration period. t v () v 68 Glossary Same as with the DFG understood from context. If there is no path in(More)
A real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay using SYBR Green I dye was developed to quantify the Enterococcus faecium enterococci surface protein (esp) marker in sewage (n = 16) and environmental waters (n = 16). The concentration of culturable enterococci in raw sewage samples ranged between 1.3 x 10(5) and 5.6 x 10(5) colony-forming units (cfu) per(More)
AIMS This paper reports on the results of a study aimed at evaluating the specificity and sensitivity of human-specific HF183 and HF134 Bacteroides markers in various host groups and their utility to detect human faecal pollution in storm water samples collected from nonsewered catchments in Southeast Queensland, Australia. METHODS AND RESULTS The(More)
The sterilization by radiation of disposable medical items has been investigated. Various vegetative and spore-bearing bacteria have been irradiated and results indicate that 2.5 Mrad can be recommended to give a high degree of sterility. Spores of B. pumilus (E.601) showed such resistance that it might be a suitable test organism for determining the(More)
The host specificity of the five published sewage-associated Bacteroides markers (i.e., HF183, BacHum, HuBac, BacH and Human-Bac) was evaluated in Southeast Queensland, Australia by testing fecal DNA samples (n=186) from 11 animal species including human fecal samples collected via influent to a sewage treatment plant (STP). All human fecal samples (n=50)(More)