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Treatment of many infectious diseases is under threat from drug resistance. Understanding the mechanisms of resistance is as high a priority as the development of new drugs. We have investigated the basis for cross-resistance between the diamidine and melaminophenyl arsenical classes of drugs in African trypanosomes. We induced high levels of pentamidine(More)
Purine salvage is an essential function for all obligate parasitic protozoa studied to date and most are also capable of efficient uptake of preformed pyrimidines. Much progress has been made in the identification and characterisation of protozoan purine and pyrimidine transporters. While the genes encoding protozoan or metazoan pyrimidine transporters have(More)
Proteome analysis by conventional approaches is biased against hydrophobic membrane proteins, many of which are also of low abundance. We have isolated plasma membrane sheets from bloodstream forms of Trypanosoma brucei by subcellular fractionation, and then applied a battery of complementary protein separation and identification techniques to identify a(More)
During Plasmodium falciparum malaria infections, von Willebrand factor (VWF) levels are elevated, postmortem studies show platelets colocalized with sequestered infected erythrocytes (IEs) at brain microvascular sites, whereas in vitro studies have demonstrated platelet-mediated IE adhesion to tumor necrosis factor-activated brain endothelium via a bridging(More)
BACKGROUND In spite of the significant mortality associated with Plasmodium falciparum infection, the mechanisms underlying severe disease remain poorly understood. We have previously shown evidence of endothelial activation in Ghanaian children with malaria, indicated by elevated plasma levels of both von Willebrand factor (VWF) and its propeptide. In the(More)
Plasmodium falciparum malaria is a major human health scourge and a key cause of mortality. Its pathogenicity partly results from the phenomenon of "cytoadherence" mediated by the PfEMP1 (Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1) family. Extracellular domains of PfEMP1s are variable and bind various host endothelial receptors, whereas their(More)
We conducted a prevalence study of mutations in Plasmodium falciparum that are associated with antimalarial drug resistance at a rural site in Karonga near Malawi's northern border with Tanzania. We found a higher prevalence of the key chloroquine resistance-conferring mutation in the pfcrt gene (K76T) at this site in comparison with the prevalence in(More)
Repeat national household surveys suggest highly variable malaria transmission and increasing coverage of high-impact malaria interventions throughout Zambia. Many areas of very low malaria transmission, especially across southern and central regions, are driving efforts towards sub-national elimination. Reactive case detection (RCD) is conducted in(More)
Accurate and timely malaria data are crucial to monitor the progress towards and attainment of elimination. Lusaka, the capital city of Zambia, has reported very low malaria prevalence in Malaria Indicator Surveys. Issues of low malaria testing rates, high numbers of unconfirmed malaria cases and over consumption of anti-malarials were common at clinics(More)
In Zambia and other sub-Saharan African countries affected by ongoing malaria transmission, indoor residual spraying (IRS) for malaria prevention has typically been implemented over large areas, e.g., district-wide, and targeted to peri-urban areas. However, there is a recent shift in some countries, including Zambia, towards the adoption of a more(More)